WORLD COMMITTEE IRGUN YOTZEY PLOTZK

for the BE-ISRAEL

PLOTZK MEMORIAL BOOK (Plotzker Association in Israel)

 

 

 

PLOTZK

(PŁOCK)

 

A HISTORY OF AN ANCIENT JEWISH COMMUNITY IN POLAND

 

Editor:

ELIYAHU EISENBERG

Vice-Chairman, Plotzker Association in Israel

 

 

 

 

"HAMENORA"

Publishing House

Tel-Aviv, 1967

 

 

HONORARY PRESIDENT OF THE WORLD COMMIITEE

FOR THE PLOTZK MEMORIAL BOOK

 

MR. ITZHAK GRINBAUM

 

 

EDITORIAL BOARD

 

Chairman: MOSHE RUBIN

 

Members:

Itzhak Ben-Shai (Fuchs) Shlomo Greenspan

Benyamin Galewski Itzhak Tynski

IRGUN YOTZEY PLOTZK (POLIN) BE-ISRAEL

(PLOTZKER ASSOCIATION IN ISRAEL)

 

 

PLOTZKER YOUNG MENS' INDEPENDENT ASSOCIATION

IN NEW YORK

 

 

SOCIEDAD DE RESIDENTES DE PŁOCK

EN LA ARGENTINA

 

 

ORGANISATION DE LES AMIS DE PŁOCK ET ENVIRONS

EN FRANCE

 

 

PLOTZKER GROUPS IN AUSTRALIA, ENGLAND, CANADA

AND THE U.S. WEST COAST

 

 

Drawings: Yaakov Guterman

Title-page design: H. Dayan

 

 

 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

Copyright (C) 1967 by the Plotzker Association in Israel "Hamenora" Publishing House, 24, Zangwill Street. Printed by "Arazi" Press Ltd., 4, Ayelet Hashahar Street,

TEL AVIV, ISRAEL

 

The Yizkor Book in MS Word File Format

The Yizkor Book in MS Acrobat Format

Book Donated to JewishGen Yizkor Books Database

 

 

(Summaries of Hebrew and Yiddish Texts)

 

Notes

The English part is not a complete translation of the Yizkor book of Płock but rather a synopsis, summary, and should be treated as such. there are 684 pages in Hebrew and Yiddish but only 96 pages in English.

I have translated and added the titles and page numbers of articles which do not appear in the English summary. I added the code "H" if article is in Hebrew, or "Y" if in Yiddish.

I have added also the sub-chapters to the various articles, which are not included in the original Table of Contents. On many occasions I have added from the Hebrew and Yiddish parts of the book also names of people mentioned in the articles, when that was possible, mainly in the Holocaust chapters.

I have also added the names of people who appear in the photographs to the captions in English which did not include these names, see pages

I wish to thank the Płock Landsmanschaft who encouraged me and gave me and JewishGen the permission to post the Płock Yizkor book in the Internet.

 

It is my hope that this book will serve as commemoration to the Jewish ancient grand and holy community of Płock, exterminated by the Germans during the Holocaust.

 

Ada Holtzman April 18th, 2004 Yom Hashoah, 27 Nissan, 5764

 

 

FOREWORD

HISTORY OF THE JEWS IN PLOTZK UNTIL THE FIRST WORLD WAR (1237 - 1914)

 

THE PLOTZK JEWISH COMMUNITY BETWEEN THE TWO WORLD WARS 1918-1939

 

COMMUNITY INSTITUTIONS, SOCIAL WORK, ECONOMIC LIFE, NEIGHBOURHOOD RELATIONS

POLITICAL PARTIES, YOUTH MOVEMENTS, ZIONIST FUNDS

 

PLOTZK-BORN JEWISH PAINTERS

 

PERSONALITIES, PUBLIC PERSONS

 

RABBIS, WRITERS, ARTISTS, EDUCATORS, TEACHERS, LEADERS, PUBLIC ACTIVISTS, PARTY AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS ACTIVISTS, SPORT LEADERS etc.

THE LEXICON OF BIOGRAPHIES

 

THE HOLOCAUST PERIOD (1939-1945)

 

YIZKOR THE MARTYRS NAMES (NECROLOGY)

 

POST WAR EFFORTS OF REBUILDING

 

ASSOCIATIONS OF PLOTZK JEWS ALL OVER THE WORLD

 

IMAGES OF THE PAST

 

 

 

 

Foreword

 

5

 

 

HISTORY OF THE JEWS IN PLOTZK UNTIL THE FIRST WORLD WAR
(1237 - 1914)

 

History of the Jews of Plotzk from the Middle Ages until the 17th Century

Foreword

Jewish trade

Legal status of Jews

Taxes

Communal ("Kehila") Organization

Jewish patens of life

Blood libels

Jewish-Christian Relations

Prominent Kehila personalities

Non-resident Jews

Conclusion

Y. Trunk

10

The History of the Jews of Plotzk from the Middle of the 17th Century until World War I

  1. From the middle of the 16th century until the end of the Polish kingdom
  2. The Napoleonic period 1793-1813
    Under Prussian rule (1783-1807)
    Under the Dukedom of Warsaw (1807-1814)
  3. A period of prosperity and revolt
  4. Second half of the 19th century
    Social and health institutions
    The Vaad Hakehila (Community Council) and the Rabbinate
    Economic life
  5. The years preceding World War I 1900-1914

Y. Trunk

16

Activities of the Plotzk Jewish Community

Dr. Y. Schipper

25

The Minute-Book of the Tailors' Union

Dr. E. Ringelblum

25

The Privileges of the Jews in Plock

Michael Szperling

H-74

R' Moshe Ben Israel Wasserzug

E.E.

25

Avraham Yaacov Papierna (1840-1919); a Teacher and Literary Critic

S. Greenspan

26

Aharon ben Moshe Kahanstam (Konstam)

E. Eisenberg

27

Lives of Famous Plotzk Rabbis

R' Yehuda Leib Margoulis

R' Zysza Plotzker

R' Shmuel Ben Azriel

R' Arye Leib Zunz (Reb Leibele Charif)

R' Abraham of Ciechanow the Plotzker "Ilui"

R' Yissachar Dov Graubart N. Sokolov's Rabbi

R' Eleazar Cohen

R' Azriel Arye Leib Rakowski, the fighting "mitnaged"

S. Greenspan

28

Jewish Life in Plotzk in the light of Hebrew Periodicals of the Second Half of the19th Century

Itzhak Grinbaum and Aharon Becker - pillars of Zionism in Plotzk

The pre-Zionist epoch of Nahum Sokolov

Education and cultural life

Public institutions and social work

Relations with Polish neighbors

Emigration

S. Greenspan

33

Nahum Sokolov's Youth

F. Sokolov

36

Płock Hassidim and Nahum Sokolov

Kurt Blumenfeld

H-130

Fragments of Memories

I. Grinbaum

H-131

Beginnings of Zionism in Plotzk

I. Grinbaum

36

Inauguration of the first Jewish Gymnasium

Y. M. Zlotnik

37

Memories of the Past

Gerer Hassidim

The Beth Midrash

Spirit of progress

Rabbi R' Yecheskel Lipszyc

Family Kampner

"Amcha" near the "Iron Gate"

S. Rozen

37

Memories of a pupil of the Russian Gymnasium

10% only to the children of the Jews

In the school of the teacher Jarzombek

The problems of the Jewish pupils; the teacher of religion: A. J. Papierna

Jakob Brozda

H-141

The value "Płock" in various encyclopedias

 

H-145

A Jewish settlement from the 11th century is discovered

 

H-145

Jewish Plotzk during the First World War

I. Tynski

38

home

THE PLOTZK JEWISH COMMUNITY BETWEEN THE TWO WORLD WARS 1918-1939

 

COMMUNITY INSTITUTIONS, SOCIAL WORK, ECONOMIC LIFE, NEIGHBOURHOOD RELATIONS

 

The Jewish Kehila of Plotzk ("Vaad Hakehila" secretary memoirs)

Y. Ben-Shai (Fuchs)

40

Institutions and Organizations in Płock at 1934

(from "Kalendarz-informator Mazowsza Płockiego

H-208

Płock in "Almanach Gmin Zydowskich" 1939

 

H-208

The Jewish Hospital on the name of Icchak Fogel

A. Shmueli (Plutzer)

41

Ezrat Holim

 

42

The Jewish Orphanage ("Ochronka")

G. Puk

42

"Charity saves from death" (the image of a popular welfare activist)

Halina Woitkowski Szlechter, source: Dina Berland

H-212

Cooperative Banks and Trade Unions

Banks

The Credit bank

Other financial institutions

Professional associations

The tailors organization in Płock

The transportation workers unions

The trade unions of office workers and salesmen

I. G. Chanachowicz (Kent)

43

The Small Traders organization

J. Malonek

44

The association of artisans in Płock

Jehoszua Zwirek

H-220

The "Gildene" Street

B. Gincberg

44

The yard of Altman on Szeroka street 10

Natan Lerman

H-223

Grunim (published in "Płocker wart", 1936)

Chaim Flaks

H-224

"Ort" in Płock

I. Tynski

44

Anti-Semitism in Plotzk between the two World-Wars

E.E.

45

The Mariavits Convent and the Jews

Who were the Mariavits?

The Mariavits and the Jews

The Mariavits and the Germans

They did not help the Jews

What happened to the Jewish property?

I. G. Chanachowicz (Kent)

45

home

EDUCATION, RELIGIOUS LIFE, CULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS, PERSONALITIES

 

The Jewish Gymnasium

 

47

Jewish Primary Education

I. Ben Shai (Fuchs)

47

Shmuel Penson

B. Grey (Graubart)

48

My Father, R' Shmuel Penson

A. Penson

48

Jewish Education in Plotzk

Prof. D. Eisenberg

48

Memories of the melamed Yehiel Meir Kravietz

A. Sh.

49

The Popular Functions of the Jewish Library "Hazamir"

Prof. D. Eisenberg

49

Jubilee to the Jewish library in Płock

E.E.

H-249

Local Theater Groups

M. Magnes

49

Childhood Memories

M. Zylberberg

50

The "small Beth Midrash" of Płock

Israel Zylberberg

Y-258

The arrival of a new rabbi to Płock

 

H-259

The Victim

Y. Warszawski

H-260

The Struggle for Restoring the Good Name of Rabbi H. Shapiro

A. Hartglas

50

Nahum Sokolov and Plotzk

Y. Warszawski

50

Nahum Sokolov's visit to Plotzk and Wyszogrod

M. Turkow

51

Shalom Ash and Plotzk

M. Zylberberg

51

My Uncle, Rabbi Y. L. Avida ("El Zet", R' Yehuda Leib Zlotnik)

Ruhama Shnir (Zlotnik)

51

Rabbi Yehuda Leib Avida (Zlotnik)

Dr. Nechemia Aloni

52

Alfred Blei, The Last Chairman

Meir (Michael) Koenigsberg

52

Zysze Landau

Melech Rawicz

53

Memories of My Father's Home

"Jewish Islands" in a Christian neighborhood

The uniqueness of the Jewish gymnasium of Płock

"Hashomer Hatzair" the oldest scouts movements in Płock

The summer camps of Hashomer Hatzair

The home of grandfather in Dobrzyn

A new social and cultural framework

The Hebrew youth movement "Akiba" in Płock

Two tragic episodes in Akiba movement; the war burst out

Our escape from home

In Gostynin; granting the nobility title for saving life

First brutalities and abuses by the Nazis

We return to Płock

To the east with a torn refugee identity card

E. Eisenberg

53

 

POLITICAL PARTIES, YOUTH MOVEMENTS, ZIONIST FUNDS

home

The first Zionist fulfillment

Elisza Jecheskeli (Czrnobroda)

H-297

Four friends and their spiritual world

M. Rubin

55

"Agudat Zion"

 

55

The festivities of "L'g Baomer for the national fund

M. Rubin

H-303

Keren Kayemet Activities

 

55

"Zeirei Zion" in Płock

I. Tynski

56

The Agricultural Farm of Moshe Krakowski

E. E.

56

"Hachshara" Kibbutz on the name of "Borochow"

F. Fliderblum

57

Hehalutz, Hehalutz Hatzair and Hapoel

Getting organized

The objection of the extreme religious

"Hehalutz Hatzair" (Young Hehalutz)

The branch activities

Kibbutz Hachshara in town

The visit of the 2 messengers from Eretz Israel

The experiences of the Alyia

"Hapoel"

Training of young sportsmen

Dedication to Jewish sport

Y. Rosenblum

57

Summary of 10 years of "Poalei Zion"

R. Lichtman

H-320

"Mizrahi" Movement

 

58

"Herzlia" Association

M. Rubin

59

"Poalei Zion (Left)"

The First World War

The local politic work after the War

The social-professional activity

The cultural public work

Aftermath

B. Okolica

59

The "Freiheit" Movement

D. Shahari

59

"Agudat Israel" in Płock and the Region

The founding assembly

The educational activity

The members of Agudat Israel in the Community Committee and the Municipality Council

The economic activity

L. Geliebter

60

The Activities of the "Bund"

Under the czarist regime

During the war years

The first years of independent Poland

The visits of the "Bund" leaders

Striving for victory

Last words

I. M. Oliver (Ilover)

60

"Hashomer Hatzair"

The beginning of the movement as a scout Jewish movement

Founding of Hashomer Hatzair in Płock with the Hebrew Gymnasium

Changes of the ideology and the human structure

Two girls of the Płock branch fight against the Nazis

E. E.

61

Revisionists and "Beitar"

 

62

General Zionist Youth Movement

("Hashomer Haleumi" "Hanoar Hazioni" "Akiba")

 

B. Galewski

62

"Akiba" in Płock ("Divrei Akiba" 14.12.1933)

 

H-345

From our own ideas (the ideological struggle for Zionism and Judaism)

Meir Pagorek

H-346

The Local Communist Party

Sh. P.

63

The history of "Maccabi" in Płock

1915

1918

1923

1933

M. Rubin

63

The last two years of "Maccabi"

A. Najman (Nowicki)

64

home

PLOTZK-BORN JEWISH PAINTERS

 

Nathan Korzen the painter

 

H-370

Nathan Korzen

Y. Aronson

65

Fishl Zylberberg (Zber) (1909-1942)

 

65

He will not be forgotten

Harry Koren (Korzen)

H-376

The exhibition of the works of F. Zylberberg

 

H-378

With Fiszl Zylberberg (Zber) before his tragic death

Stenia Bender (deported to Auschwitz under name "Guta Rozenstein", the wife of Fishl Zber

Itzchak Furmansky

H-380

Yechiel Meir (Maks) Eljowicz, Portrait-Painter

M. Rubin

66

David Tushinsky, Master of Miniatures

E. E.

67

Shmuel Har-Shalom (Fridenberg)

M. Rubin

68

home

PERSONALITIES, PUBLIC PERSONS

RABBIES, WRITERS, ARTISTS, EDUCATORS, TEACHERS, LEADERS, PUBLIC ACTIVISTS, PARTY AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS ACTIVISTS, SPORT LEADERS etc.

The Lexicon of Biographies

Collected and Edited by Shlomo Greenspan, Moshe Rubin, Itzhak Ben Ishai (Fuchs) and rabbi Leib Geliebter

Nachum Sokolov (1860-1936)

 

H-391

Itzhak Grinbaum

 

H-393

Rabbis, dayanim (religious judges) and heads of yeshivot (religious colleges)

R' Yehuda Lajb Avida (Zlotnik) (Rabbi)

R' Adelberg Itzhak (Rabbi)

R' Auerbach Itzhak son of R' Chaim (Rabbi)

R' Auerbach Falk (Rabbi)

R' Ajdelberg Mordechai Dov (the last Rabbi of Płock)

Bzura Matatyahu (Dayan)

R' Ginzburg Abraham Chaim

Hftka Zisman (Dayan)

R' Halberstat Naftali Herc (Rabbi)

R' Szymon Zylberberg (Dayan)

R' Ziskind Aleksander H'Kohen - "R' Zisza Płocker" (Rabbi)

R' Zlotnik Yona Mordechai (Rabbi)

R' Kohen Eliezer (Rabbi)

R' Lipszyc Zeew Wolf (Rabbi)

R' Lipszyc Jecheskel (Rabbi)

R' Landau Abraham the Ciechanow Admu"r

Mendelson Mendel (head of Yeshiva)

Mendelson Moshe son of Mendel (Dayan)

R' Mendelson Beniamin son of Mendel (Rabbi)

R' Margalit Yehuda Leib (Rabbi)

R' Menachem Nachum son of R' Yosef (Rabbi)

R' Pinchas son of R' Yehuda (Rabbi)

R' Cwi Hirsz (Rabbi)

R' Zunz Arie Lejb (R' Lejbele Harif) (Rabbi)

Rubinstein Michael (head of the small Beth Midrash Yeshiva)

R' Rubinstein Fyszel (Rabbi)

Rodabr Szmuel Zysza (head of Yeshiva)

R' Rozebstrauch Mendel (Rabbi)

R' Rakowski Azriel Arie Lejb (Rabbi)

R' Szmuel Ben Azriel (Rabbi)

R' Shapira Chaim (the Płocker Admu"r)

 

H-395

 

 

The Lexicon of Biographies

 

H-400

 

home

THE HOLOCAUST PERIOD (1939-1945)

 

The Jews of Plotzk under the Nazi regime

Until the deportation

Plotzk refugees in exile

Acts of resistance

Plotzk after the Holocaust

Dr. J. Kermish

70

Jews of Plotzk in Exile

 

76

Letters of Płocker Jews from the towns of deportation

 

H-506

Pages in the diary

Itzhak Tynski

Y-526

Jews of Plotzk under the Nazi terror

D. Dąbrowska

76

Testimonies

Lea Moszkowicz

Dina Inowroclawska

Regina Kalman

Felicja (Fela) Ravitzka

Unnamed person

Dr. Hersz Russak

R. Lichtman

Simcha Mintz

 

77

The tortures in the Forced Labor Camp Amsee (near Poznan). All prisoners of this camp were murdered. They worked there for the German Company O. Quast.

Leib Geliebter

H-539

Płock in the chronicle of Ludwik Landau (1909-1944) a Jewish famous economist from Tomaszow Mazowiecki

 

H-542

A Reminder ("Regards")

H. Elboim-Dorembus

78

Between Warsaw and Plotzk

Michael Zylberberg

78

I left the Ghetto

H. Mairanc-Meiri

79

I was a "Submarine" in a Nazi-Camp

M. Koenigsberg

79

A Revolt in Hell, Testimony The horrors and heroism in the camp of Treblinka

Treblinka, historical review

In Płock and with the family

With the slavery labor battalions in Treblinka

The day of the revolt and revenge and its planning

Accumulation of arms and last preparations

The signal is given

Rudek Lubraniecki the hero of Treblinka

The escape from all parts of the camp

In hiding and in action

The trial of Treblinka perpetrator, the German Kurt Franc

Marian Platkiewicz

79

H-544

I was a mouth of hundreds of thousands murdered victims (Sobibor trial)

Moshe Bahir (Szklarek)

H-553

The testimony of Moshe Bahir (Szklarek) in the Eichman trial

State archive "The Government Counselor against Adolf Eichman. Testimonies B', pages 1045-1050

 

H-555

Nothing Remain... (a poem)

Katriel (Kurt) Hazan

H-558

To the Jews of Poland (a poem translated from Polish to Hebrew by Zvi Yashiv)

Wladyslaw Broniewski

H-559

Warszawa year 5601 (1941)

Itzhak Bernsztein

H-560

Our Płocker landsleit in Ghetto Warsaw

The first refugees

The period until the erection of the ghetto

The period of the ghetto

The contact with the deportees in the various towns

Days of the deportations

After the Holocaust

Michael Zylberberg

H-570

Escaped from the claws of death (Josef-Jorzek Fiszman Makowski)

Prof. Artur Ber

H-573

Yizkor the Martyrs Names (necrology)

 

H-575

 

home

POST WAR EFFORTS OF REBUILDING

 

Survivors of the fire

Alfred Blei (30.10.1945)

H-606

 

The activities of the Płocker Survivors Committee

 

In liberated Płock the remembrance assembly of March 3rd, 1946

David Lichtenstein: the first Płocker victims of the war

Talks by Mrs. Koenigsberg, Zielonka, Mr. Cichi (from Drobin), Eisenberg, Platkewicz, Margolin and Alfred Blei, chairman.

 

 

H-608

Exhumation (21.10.1946)

 

H-610

Summary of the Płocker Survivors Committee activities (1948)

M. Tirman

H-611

The dedication ceremony of the memorial monument to Płock martyrs (built by architect Benjamin Arie Leib Perlmuter)

 

H-612

Jewish Plotzk cannot be rebuilt

The path of agony of the Jews of Płock

Trials of rehabilitation

The plant is not revived

I. G. Bursztyn

82

H-614

Y-619

 

I returned Home

Memories and experiences of a refugee upon return after the Holocaust

In a refugees train to Poland

The first encounter with the city, June 1946

Trials to renew life which were destroyed

Szeroka street

The house of Maccabi

A struggle for labor

In the main streets of town

In the "Tumy" boulevard

The grand synagogue

The cemetery

I. G. Chanachowicz (Kent)

83

H-629

Post- War Activities in Plotzk

A memorial meeting in liberated Plotzk (3.5.1946)

Re-burial ceremony of 25 Nazi victims

Summary of the activities by the committee of Plotzk survivors

Unveiling of the monument (23.10.1949)

 

83

 

home

ASSOCIATIONS OF PLOTZK JEWS ALL OVER THE WORLD

 

Jews of Plotzk in Israel

Until the foundation of the State of Israel

The activities of the organization in the State of Israel

The book of Płock

 

85

H-643

The first immigrants ("olim") from Płock in Eretz Israel

Memories of my father home

Eng. Mordechai Shoshani

H-648

Yaacov Tzidkoni (Rechtman) a Folklore researcher and a collector

 

H-651

In Memoriam

Itzhak Barak (Zeligman) z"l - IDF Lieutenant Colonel

Mordechai Licht z"l - man of Ein Vered

Josef Rosenfeld z"l - fell in Gesher Haziv battle

Eliyahu Kruvi (Kapusta) z"l

Itzhak Rosenfeld z"l

Uri Kinamon z"l

Hersh Cohen z"l - among the founders of "Neve Shaanan" suburb

Yechiel Avivi (Fliderblum) z"l words about his image

Yaakov Fishman z"l the Halutz (pioneer) and educator

 

86

History of the Plotzker Young Mens' Association in New York

Members of the committee in 1966:

Pres. Geo. Seeman

V-Pres. Dr. K. Bach and C. Okolica

Treas. S. Bornstein

Fin. Secy. H. Lipner

Rec. Secy. J. Gomberg

Trustees M. Weitzman, J. Bernstein, N. Fink

H. Lipner

88

Shlomo Greenspan, In Memoriam

Bezalel Okolica

89

Plotzk Jews in the Argentine

 

90

Several details about the Płockers in Argentina

 

Y-676

Plotzk Jews in France

H. Zimmerman

90

Last Letter from Menachem Banach, 30.3.1942

 

Y-677

Plotzk Jews in various countries

Australia, England, Los Angeles, Canada

 

91

Images of the Past - Illustrations

 

92


home

Lexicon of Personalities and Pubic Workers (in Hebrew)

 

389-445

Yizkor Lists

 

575-605

 

 

P.R.I.

Last Updated July 2nd, 2004

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