We Remember Jewish Płock!

פלוצק

PLOTZK; PŁOCK

P. R. I.
Płock Remembrance Initiative

Plock Research Group in the Internet

Please Support the J.R.I.(Jewish Records Indexing - Poland) Project: Extracting   Plock Books of Jewish Residents 

Jan Przedpelski & Jerzy Stefański: ŻYDZI PŁOCCY w DZIEJACH MIASTA - Jews in the History of Płock
 Książnica Płocka im. Władysława Broniewskiego Płock 2012

The Biographies are all only in Polish!


FROM THE AUTHORS

 

We would like to present a book entitled 'The Jewish Community in the History of the City of Płock'. This book relates centuries of Jewish activity within Płock and also the tragic fate of the Jews in Płock during The Second World War.

 

In the past, almost one out of every three inhabitants of Płock was Jewish. For example, in the year 1920, there were 9,062 Jewish people (32%) from the total of 28,134 population of Płock. The following year (1921) the Jewish people accounted for 9,439 (37%) of the total 26,064 population of Płock.

 

At the beginning of 1237, Płock received its civic rights. Through the succeeding centuries, Jewish settlement developed in Poland - right up until the 1950s. In many ways, the Jews were very much connected with the history of Płock. They were involved in trade, charity, politics and also created the foundations of the agricultural machinery industry. They were also people of science, founders of banks, outstanding doctors, painters, teachers; some even erecting magnificent private and municipal buildings.

 

Two members of the Jewish community played a special role in the agricultu­ral machinery and tools industry. Moses Szyja Sarna and Marian Margulies, who were co-founders of two factories - the largest factories in the city. Moses Szyja Sarna's factory employed 92 employees and Marian Margulies 65 employees.

 

In 1929, there were banks run by two gentlemen from Płock's Jewish communi­ty. 'The Merchant Bank' in 14 Tumska Street, whose president was Moses Altberg (1858-1940) was known for his charitable disposition. The second bank was 'The Bank Loan and Cooperative' (16 Tumska Street) was managed by Leon Kilbert.

 

A trade union for Jewish craftsmen (in 9 Grodzka Street) organised work for craftsmen. In 1929 it was led by a Jewish tailor - Moses Gutkin (?-1933).

 

Between the wars there were many cultural and educational societies in Płock, among them 'Freiheit' ('Freedom'), which was founded by Moses Zander (XX c.), Toba Nasielska, Lejb Licht (XIX-XX c.), Symcha Guterman and S. Lysner (XX c.). Other cultural institutions existed, including the Jewish Library (the name of Sz. Arski, in 29 Sienkiewicza Street appears in sources in connection with this). The (Jewish) Library of the 'Hazomir Society' (Stary Rynek 11). These organisations promoted reading and cultural activities within the Jewish society of Płock.

 

There were some Jewish schools in the city under the auspices of the Magistra­te of Płock, including the co-educational 'Middle School of Jewish Humanities' (28 Kolegialna Street), which was first run by N. Hirszberg, who was succeeded by Dr. Henryk Bromberger. Sporting associations were also set up for teenagers for the promotion of sport and physical well-being. These were the Jewish gymnastics and sports societies - known as the 'Makabi'. 

 

In the field of health care a hospital was established named 'Izaak Fogel' (7 Misjonarska Street) from the generous donations of Gustaw Fogel who died in 1903. This hospital, whose President was Rafal Ploskier (1871-1930), had wide medical activity, with wards for the benefit of the whole community of Płock.

 

From the analysis of 500 biographical entries we can survey the significant role the Jewish community had in the development of Płock. This publication has used Polish, Hebrew, foreign archives, books, press articles and oral history.

 

In this book can be found biographical entries of famous people, friends, cousins - a worthy commemoration of the Jewish community of Płock. We hope that the book 'The Jewish Community in the History of the City of Płock' will be well-received - giving as it does both interesting inforrmation and insights - for the purposes of broadening the knowledge of one of the oldest Jewish communities in Poland.

 

Jan PRZEDPELSKI & Jerzy STEFAŃSKI

 


 

The Index

pages 179-184

 

ŻYDZI PŁOCCY W DZIEJACH MIASTA

PŁOCK JEWS IN THE HISTORY OF THE CITY

The Biographies are all only in Polish!

WYKAZ NAZWISK

INDEX OF NAMES

 

 

Name of Person

Page Nr.

Year Of Birth and Year of Death

A

 

 

 

 

Altberg Abraham

27

 

 

Altberg Emma

27

 

 

Altberg Lucjan

27

 

 

Altberg Mojżesz

28

 

 

Altberg Paulina

28

 

 

Alter O. M.

29

 

 

Altman Abraham

29

 

 

Altman Izaak

29

 

 

Altman Izaak Towie

29

 

 

Altman Jakub

30

 

 

Aronowicz Feliks

30

 

 

Askanas Alfons

30

 

 

Askanas Józef

30

 

 

Askanas Apolonia

30

 

 

Askanas Jakub

31

 

 

Askanas Józef

31

 

 

Askanas Kazimierz

31

 

 

Assante Izaak

34

 

 

Aszkenasy Izaak

34

 

 

Auerbach

34

 

 

Auerbach Boruch Mendel

34

 

 

Auerbaech Icchak (Iciek)

34

 

 

 

 

 

B

 

 

 

 

Bahir Mosze (Szklarek)

35

 

 

Baum Aleksander

35

 

 

Beatus Tobka

36

 

 

Beker Aron

36

 

 

Ben Jakow Józef

36

 

 

Ber Artur (Alter)

36

 

 

Ber (Bär) Issachar

37

 

 

Barenholc Meir

38

 

 

Berkenfeld Chiel

38

 

 

Berleisor

38

 

 

Berman Feliks

38

 

 

Bernasztejn Izaak

38

 

 

Biszofswerder Leopold

39

 

 

Blay Alfred

39

 

 

Blay Franciszka

40

 

 

Bluman

40

 

 

Blumowicz Całka

40

 

 

Braun Jadzia

41

 

 

Braun Jakub Gecel

41

 

 

Braun Markus Gecel

41

 

 

Bressler Jerzy

41

 

 

Bromberger Dawid

42

 

 

Bromberger Henryk

42

 

 

Bromberger Salomon

42

 

 

Brombergerowa Masza vel Maria

42

 

 

Brygard Lejzor

43

 

 

Buch Szyja

43

 

 

Buki Majer

43

 

 

Bursztyn Abraham

44

 

 

Bursztyn Izrael Gerszon

44

 

 

Bzura Aron Matys

45

 

C

 

 

 

 

Chanachowicz Abraham Zelig

45

 

 

Ciechanower Abraham

45

 

 

Cohen Chaim 4

46

 

 

Cohen (Kohen) Chananowicz Aleksander Abraham

46

 

 

Cohen Eleazar

47

 

 

Cohn Adolf Jakub

47

 

 

Cybulski Herman

47

 

 

Cybulski Jerzy

47

 

 

Cydkoni Jakow

48

 

 

Cynamon Dawid

48

 

 

Cynamon Izrael Wolf

48

 

 

Cyprys Gustaw

49

 

 

Cybulski Jerry

47

 

 

Cydkonijakow

48

 

 

Cynamon Dawid

48

 

D

 

 

 

 

Damb Adam

50

 

 

Domb Juliusz

50

 

 

Domerath Szczęsny

50

 

 

Dywan Hersz

50

 

E

 

 

 

 

Eisenberg Dawid

50

 

 

Eisenberg Eliahu

51

 

 

Ejdelberg Mordechaj Dawid

51

 

 

Ejdelberg Szlomo

51

 

 

Ejzenberg Dawid

52

 

 

Eliowicz or  Eljowicz Maksynailian

52

 

 

Epstein Jan

53

 

 

Estenberg Dawid

54

 

F

 

 

 

 

FajansMaurycy

54

 

 

FajkaAron

54

 

 

Fajka Froim (Efraim)

54

 

 

Faliseh Samuel

54

 

 

Feinberg Ignacy Izaak

55

 

 

Fenigsztein Abraham

55

 

 

Finkensztein

55

 

 

Fiszman Abraham

55

 

 

Fiszman Bromsława

56

 

 

Fiszman Jakub

56

 

 

Fiszman Tobiasz

56

 

 

Flaks Abraham

56

 

 

Flaks Chaim

57

 

 

Flaks Józef

57

 

 

Flatan Edward

57

 

 

Flatau Helena

58

 

 

Flatau Henryk

59

 

 

Flatau Jechim

59

 

 

Flatan Ludwik

59

 

 

Flatau Tekla

59

 

 

Fliderbaum (Fliderblum) Mojżesz

59

 

 

Fliderblum Fiszel

60

 

 

Fliderblum Jechiel

60

 

 

Fliderblum Regina

60

 

 

Florek Fiszel

61

 

 

Florek Fiszel

61

 

 

Florek H.S.

61

 

 

Fogel Dawid

61

 

 

Fogel Gustaw

61

 

 

Fogel Icek

62

 

 

Forbert Leon

62

 

 

Frendel Anatol

63

 

 

Frenkel Józef

63

 

 

Frenkel Lejb

63

 

 

Freym Salomon

64

 

 

Fridenberg Szmuel

64

 

 

Friede Hersz

64

 

 

Fristenberg B.

64

 

 

Fürstenberg Mosze

64

 

 

 

 

 

G

Gajzler Izaak

65

 

 

Galewski Józef

65

 

 

Gawron Abraham

65

 

 

Gąsior M.J.

65

 

 

Gehler Łukasz

66

 

 

German Icek-Lejb

66

 

 

Giercuszkiewicz Maria

66

 

 

Gierski (Giersztenkern) Daniel

66

 

 

Glanc Rywa

66

 

 

Glober M.J.

67

 

 

Globus Mosze

67

 

 

Goldberg Adolf Adam

67

 

 

Goldberg Dawid

68

 

 

Goldberg Leon

68

 

 

Goldberg Mendel

69

 

 

Goldberg Michał Natan

69

 

 

Goldberg Mieczysław

69

 

 

Golddus J.

70

 

 

Golde Aleksander

70

 

 

Golde Antoni

70

 

 

Golde Benjamin

70

 

 

Golde Bronisława

71

 

 

Golde Czesława

71

 

 

Golde Juliusz

71

 

 

Golde Synaj

71

 

 

Golde-Stróżecka Estera

72

 

 

Goldhma Artur

72

 

 

Goldkind-Złotnicki Ariasz

72

 

 

Goldman Abram

73

 

 

Goldman Dawid

73

 

 

Goldman Haskiel

73

 

 

Goldstein Paweł

73

 

 

Graubard Mark

74

 

 

Graubart Natan

74

 

 

Greenspan Szlomo

74

 

 

Grodzicki Dawid

75

 

 

Grünbaum Icchak

75

 

 

Grünbaum Jakub

76

 

 

Grünbberg Abram

79

 

 

Grünbberg A.

79

 

 

Grzebień Chaim S.

79

 

 

Grzebień Paweł (Pejsach)

79

 

 

Gumplowicz Cecylia

80

 

 

Günsburg Chaim

80

 

 

Guterman Ewa

80

 

 

Guterman Jakub

81

 

 

Guterman Symcha

82

 

 

Guterman Szlomo 83

83

 

 

Gutkind Erna (Erhma)

83

 

 

Gutkind Mojżesz

83

 

 

Gutkind Natalia

83

 

 

Gutkowska Kazimiera

84

 

 

Gutman Ber

84

 

 

Gutman Chaskiel

84

 

 

Guzik Władysław

84

 

 

 

 

 

H

Habelman Witold

84

 

 

Halberstadt (Halbersztadt) Neftali Hertz

84

 

 

Halewi Fabian Szymon

85

 

 

Hammer Herman

85

 

 

Handelsman Józef

85

 

 

Hart J.

86

 

 

Hasem Kurt 86

86

 

 

Hassyd Samuel 86

86

 

 

Hayntze Ignacy

86

 

 

Hazan Ch.

86

 

 

Hazen Hersz

86

 

 

Hazen Leon

87

 

 

Heliasz

87

 

 

Helling S.

87

 

 

Hetern Hersz

87

 

 

Hirszberg

87

 

 

Horn Józef

87

 

 

Horowic (Horowitz) Jeske

8

 

 

Horowitz Abraham

88

 

 

Horowitz Natan

88

 

 

 

 

 

I

Ingelman Mosze

88

 

 

Ismach Izaak

88

 

 

Izaak

89

 

 

Izaak Ajzyk

89

 

 

 

 

 

J

Jakobson Leonard

89

 

 

Jakub

89

 

 

Jarecki Izrael

89

 

 

Jesion Alfred

89

 

 

Jesion Herman

91

 

 

Jesion Zachariasz

91

 

 

Joel Izrael

91

 

 

 

 

 

K

Kadysz Hersz

92

 

 

Kagan Niuniek

92

 

 

Kahan I.

92

 

 

Kalman Chaim Izrael

92

 

 

Kalman Samuel

92

 

 

Kaltenberg Paulina

93

 

 

Kamzel Bernard

93

 

 

Kanarek Rubin

93

 

 

Kasen Kurt

93

 

 

Kasen Leon

93

 

 

Katz Pinnie

94

 

 

Kaufman (Kamir) Leon

94

 

 

Kawaleryjski Salek

94

 

 

Keller Tekla

94

 

 

Kempner Celina (Cecylia)

95

 

 

Kempner Chaim Rafał

95

 

 

Kempner Estera Fajga

95

 

 

Kempner Ludwik

95

 

 

Kempner Mojżesz                                 

96

 

 

Kempner Rafał

96

 

 

Kenigsberg Abraham

97

 

 

Kenigsberg Bolesław

97

 

 

Kenigsberg Jakub

97

 

 

Kenigsberg Janina

97

 

 

Kenigsberg Józef

98

 

 

Kenigsberg Michał

98

 

 

Kent (Chanaowicz) Gary

98

 

 

Kerber A.M.

99

 

 

Kilbert Leon

99

 

 

Kirstejn Izrael

100

 

 

Kirsztyan Izrael

100

 

 

Klejman Herman

100

 

 

Klejman Marceli

101

 

 

Klejnówna Sura Chana

101

 

 

Koenig Aron Juda

101

 

 

Koenigsberger (Kenigsberger) Rubin

101

 

 

Kohen Aleksander

102

 

 

Kohn Chiwa

102

 

 

Kohn (Cohn) Lejzor-Wolf

102

 

 

Kohn Ludwik

102

 

 

Kohnsztam Aron

102

 

 

Kon Chaim Lejb

103

 

 

Kon Karol

103

 

 

Kon Lejb

103

 

 

Kon Romana

103

 

 

Kon Zelda

103

 

 

Konik Lejzor

104

 

 

Kopyto Benjamin

104

 

 

Korczak Rajzel (Roszka)

104

 

 

Korzeń Hersz

104

 

 

Korzeń Izrael

105

 

 

Korzerń Natan

105

 

 

Koszerkiewiez Abraham

107

 

 

Koszerkiewiez Benjamin

107

 

 

Koszerkiewicz Izrael

107

 

 

Koszerkiewiez Mordechaj

108

 

 

Kowadło J.

108

 

 

Kowalska H.

108

 

 

Koza Józef

108

 

 

Krawiec Jechiel

108

 

 

Kredyt Marek

109

 

 

Kronenberg Izaak

109

 

 

Krongold Henryk

109

 

 

Kruk Gustaw

109

 

 

Kruk Herman

109

 

 

Kruk Jakub, a painter

110

 

 

Kruk Jakub, Zionist activist

110

 

 

Kunig Józef

110

 

 

Kunkiel Izrael Wolf

110

 

 

Kwiatek Józef

111

 

 

Kwiatek Julian

112

 

 

 

 

 

L

Laberschek Ignacy

112

 

 

Landau Daniel

112

 

 

Landau Zysze

113

 

 

Langman L.

114

 

 

Lebenthal Helena

114

 

 

Leibgot S.

114

 

 

Lerman Natan

115

 

 

Leszczyński-Leński Julian

115

 

 

Lewenstein Nikodem

116

 

 

Lewenstein Roman

116

 

 

Lewin Morytz

116

 

 

Lewinson Izydor

117

 

 

Lewinson Ludwik

117

 

 

Lewinson Paweł

117

 

 

Lewita Oscar

118

 

 

Licht Leib

118

 

 

Lichtenstein Beniamin

118

 

 

Lichtenstein Dawid

118

 

 

Lichtman E.

118

 

 

Lipszyc Abraham

119

 

 

Lipszyc Jechaskiel

119

 

 

Lipszyc Natan

120

 

 

Lob Arie

120

 

 

Lob Linz Arie

120

 

 

Londyński Zachariasz

120

 

 

Los Sara

121

 

 

Lossman Samuel

121

 

 

Lubelski Filip

121

 

 

Lubelski Wilhelm Szymon

122

 

 

Luboszyc Romana

122

 

 

Lubraniecki Jojne

122

 

 

Lubraniecki Rudek

122

 

 

Lysner S.

123

 

 

 

 

 

Ł

Łabędź Eliasz

123

 

 

 

 

 

M

Mar Marian

123

 

 

Margiel Leon

124

 

 

Margolies Jehuda Leib

124

 

 

Margolies Czesław

124

 

 

Margulies Fabiusz

124

 

 

Margulies Izaak

125

 

 

Margulies Marian (Maurycy)

125

 

 

Margulin Jerzy

125

 

 

Mayzel Natan

125

 

 

Mayzner Abraham

126

 

 

Mayzuer Kazimierz

126

 

 

Melgut Symcha

127

 

 

Mesz Natan

127

 

 

Miller Fela

127

 

 

Milsztajn Majlech

127

 

 

Minc Szlomo

127

 

 

Misterlin Monoculuc

128

 

 

Morsztejn Joel

128

 

 

Morsztejn Michał

128

 

 

Morsztyn (Morsztein, Morsztejn) Abraham Mojżesz

128

 

 

Motek Perl-Gryc

129

 

 

Mulek Rubin

129

 

 

Muszkat Szymon

129

 

 

 

 

 

N

Nadulek Karol

129

 

 

Nadulek Meir

129

 

 

Nelkin Maurycy

129

 

 

Nerwa Adolf Abram

130

 

 

Neumark Bluma

130

 

 

Neumark Jakub

130

 

 

Nichtberger

130

 

 

Nichtberger Szymon

130

 

 

Nowak Paweł      

130

 

 

 

 

 

O

Oberfeld Anna

132

 

 

Oberfeld Franciszka

132

 

 

Oberfeld Jan

132

 

 

Oberfeld (Majewska) Maria

132

 

 

Oberfeld Rudolf

133

 

 

Okolica Becalel

133

 

 

Olesznik Abram

134

 

 

Oliver Izaak

134

 

 

Ordon (Szancer) Władysław

134

 

 

Ostrower Abraham

135

 

 

Ostrower Izrael

135

 

 

Ostrower Lew

135

 

 

Ostrower Samuel

135

 

 

 

 

 

P

Pakula Roman

135

 

 

Pakula Ryszard

136

 

 

Papierczyk Abram

136

 

 

Papierczyk Ajzyk

136

 

 

Papierczyk Eliasz

136

 

 

Papierna Abraham Jakub

136

 

 

Parzanczewska Debora

137

 

 

Pencherek S.

137

 

 

Penson Jakub

137

 

 

Penson Szmuel

137

 

 

Perelgric Motek

138

 

 

Perelmuter Beniamin

138

 

 

Perkhal Zygmunt

138

 

 

Plocker Zysze

139

 

 

Płatkieweicz Kuba

139

 

 

Płatkieweicz Marian

140

 

 

Plońskier Lejb

140

 

 

Plońskier Rafał

140

 

 

Posner Dawid

140

 

 

Posner Dawid, religious activist

141

 

 

Posner Józef Markus

141

 

 

Posner Leon

141

 

 

Posner Manasses

141

 

 

Posner Markus

141

 

 

Posner Meir

141

 

 

Posner Natan

142

 

 

Posner Salomon

142

 

 

Posner Stanisław

142

 

 

Prussak Karol

142

 

 

 

 

 

R

Raciązel Samuel

143

 

 

Rakowska Pua

143

 

 

Rakowskj Azriel Arie Lejb

143

 

 

Rogozik Adolf

144

 

 

Rogozik Chaim

144

 

 

Rogozik Jozef

144

 

 

Rotman A.

145

 

 

Rotman J.

145

 

 

Rotman Salomon

145

 

 

Rozenberg Chaim

145

 

 

Rozenfeld Abram

145

 

 

Rozenfeld Mojżesz

145

 

 

Rozenfeld Samuel

145

 

 

Rozenthal Eliezer

146

 

 

Rubin Chaim B.

146

 

 

Rubin Mosze

146

 

 

Rubinsztejn Oriel

146

 

 

 

 

 

S

Sadzawka Mosze

147

 

 

Safian J.

147

 

 

Samson Aron

147

 

 

Samuel (Szmuel) Ben Azriel

147

 

 

Sarna Eda

148

 

 

Sarna Felicja

148

 

 

Sarna Mojżesz Szyja

148

 

 

Sarna Szyja Izydor

149

 

 

Sarna-Plucer Tadeusz

150

 

 

Schonwald J.

150

 

 

Schreiber Halewi Izrael

150

 

 

Segal Dawid

150

 

 

Skórnik Abraham

150

 

 

Słoma Majer

151

 

 

Słucki Izaak

151

 

 

Sochaczewer Mojżesz

151

 

 

Sokolow Nachum

151

 

 

Spektor G.

153

 

 

Stankiewicz (Borensztejn) Alfred

153

 

 

Strach Jakow

154

 

 

Strasman Henryk

154

 

 

Strzyk R.

154

 

 

Stupaj I.

154

 

 

Surzec Antoni

154

 

 

Szafran Abram

155

 

 

Szapiro Chaim

155

 

 

Szapiro Naftali Awigdor

156

 

 

Szechtman Adam

157

 

 

Szenwic Dawid

157

 

 

Szenwic Henryk

157

 

 

Szenwic Jakub

157

 

 

Szenwic Markus

158

 

 

Szenwic Maurycy

158

 

 

Szenwic Wilhelm

158

 

 

Szperling Wolf

158

 

 

Sztucki Benjamin

158

 

 

Szwarc Chaim

158

 

 

Szwarc Michał

159

 

 

Szwarc Pinchas

159

 

 

Szyf Adam

159

 

 

Szylit Henoch

159

 

 

 

 

 

T

Taub Jakub Lejb

159

 

 

Taub Liber

160

 

 

Taub Sonia

160

 

 

Taub-Kawowa Ruchla

160

 

 

Themerson Franciszka

160

 

 

Themerson Mieczysław

160

 

 

Themerson Roman

161

 

 

Themerson Stefan

161

 

 

Trajtel Józef

163

 

 

Turkieltaub Izaak

163

 

 

Turkow Mark

163

 

 

Tuszyński Dawid (Devi)

163

 

 

Tuszynski Felix

165

 

 

Tyńska Maria Ester

166

 

 

Tyński Adolfo

166

 

 

Tyński Eliasz

167

 

 

Tyński Tobiasz

167

 

 

 

 

 

U

Unger Izrael

167

 

 

Uszer Fela (Fania)

167

 

 

 

 

 

W

Warszawski Jakir

167

 

 

Warsze Mosze

  168

 

 

Warym Berek

168

 

 

Wassercug Szmul

168

 

 

Wassercut Mozes

169

 

 

Wasserman Dawid

169

 

 

Wasserman Izrael

169

 

 

Wasserman Izydor

169

 

 

Wasserman Jakow

170

 

 

Weidenfeld Abraham

170

 

 

Wiesenberg Feliks

170

 

 

Wolfsohn Markus

170

 

 

Wolrat Pawel

171

 

 

Wolrat Pejsach

171

 

 

Wołowski Hieronim

171

 

 

Wyszyński Izaak

171

 

 

 

 

 

Z

Zabuski-Garbuniak Emil

171

 

 

Zander Mojżesz

172

 

 

Zeligman Berek Jakub

172

 

 

Zeligman Feliks

172

 

 

Zeligman Icchak Barak

172

 

 

Zelkowicz Boruch

172

 

 

Zemel Leon

173

 

 

Zemelman Izaak

173

 

 

Zielonka Maurycy

173

 

 

Zlotnik Jehuda Lejb-Avida

173

 

 

Zlotnik Jona Mordechaj

174

 

 

Zunz Arie Lejb

175

 

 

Zylber Boruch

175

 

 

Zylberberg Eliahu

175

 

 

Zylberberg Fiszel (Zber)

176

 

 

Zylberberg Hersz

177

 

 

Zylberberg Izrael

177

 

 

Zylberg Szymon

177

 

 

Zylberger

178

 

 

Zylbernlejn Samuel

178

 

 

Zylbersztajn Jakub

178

 

 

Zyngerman Berta

178

 

 

 

 

 

Ż

Żwirek Dawid

178

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Back to P.R.I. Płock Remembrance Initiative

Last updated April 20th, 2014

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