The Yad Vashem Encyclopedia of the Ghettos during the Holocaust

Editor in Chief: Guy Miron, Jerusalem 2009

Page 203-204

 

 

Gąbin

(Yiddish: Gombin)

Town in Gostynin County, Warsaw District, Poland During the war: Wartheland, Coordinates: 52º24' | 19º44'

On the eve of the World War II, about 2,300 Jews lived in Gąbin, representing roughly half of the townlet's population. Most earned their livelihood from small commerce and artisanship, and several provided services to vacationers. The Jewish community had various charitable institutions and chapters of nearly all of the Jewish parties. The Jews of Gąbin were impacted by the anti-Semitic atmosphere of 1930s Poland, which included the boycott of Jewish commerce. At that period, the community's budget was reduced just as the number of people requiring assistance burgeoned.

Gąbin was occupied by the Germans on September 7, 1939, and they im­mediately proceeded to plunder Jewish property and seize Jews for forced labor. In late September 1939, all of Gąbin's Jews were concentrated in the market square; they were beaten, and many were murdered. The synagogue and a num­ber of other buildings belonging to Jews were set ablaze, and the Jews were required to pay a high fine. In early October 1939, the Jews of Gąbin were ordered to wear a yellow badge on their clothing, and all the Jewish men were required to perform three days of forced labor each week. A six-member Judenrat headed by Moshe Venet[1] was organized that same week.

In early 1940, a ghetto of about 2,100 Jews was established in Gąbin, into which some 250 refugees from various locations were also concentrated. At first, the ghetto was open, which made it easier for its inhabitants to obtain food. The Jews worked in German institutions and companies in the area. In the first half of 1941, the Germans began to deport Jews to various labor camps in Konin, Jedrzejow*, and Hohensalza. In all, about 200 Jews were deported to labor camps, and many were later sent to Auschwitz..

The Gąbin ghetto was liquidated on May12, 1942[2]. First[3], about 300 men were removed from the ghetto and packed into a fire station, where they were held for twenty-four hours without food or water; some of the men were shot. The survivors were transported to the Konin labor camp. The approximately 1,800 remain­ing Jews were deported to the Chelmno death camp, where they perished


Jews performing forced labor, supervised by a German guard. At the center of the photograph, Josef Leib Holcman and his daughter Andjia (Hana). Joseph Lajb was shot in the forest near Gombin, wife Lea née Zolna and the two daughters Andjia and Szajna perished in the Chelmno death camp in April 1942.

The photograph is from Meir Holcman's archve . The original photograph contributed by Ada Holtzman to YV archive


[1] The name was: Moses Wand - AH

[2] The liquidation of the Gombin ghetto has started in April 17th, 1942 and probably lasted 2-3 days. The main source is the diary of  Rabbi] Aaronson "Alei Merorot", Bnei Brak 1996; Shmuel Krakowski's book:  "A Small Village in Europe, Chelmno (Kulmhof) the First Nazi Mass Extermination Camp" (Hebrew) Yad Vashem, 2001; the research of the Gestapo Achive in Plock made by Jan Grabowski and   Holocaust survivors testimonies.  AH

[3] The deportation of the 300 men Czarkow Concentration Camp in Konin took place on March 8th, 1942, from survivors testimonies.  AH

 

 

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Last updated April 9th, 2010

 

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