We Remember the Jews of Bialystok!

The Bialystoker Memorial Book - Der Bialystoker Yizkor Buch, the Bialystoker Center, New York 1982
(c) Copyright by the Bialystoker Center


T
he cover of this Memorial Book depicts the chimneys of the factories smoking as they manufactured textiles to be distributed throughout the world, the main synagogue in flames in which the Nazis murderers burned to death 2000 Jews on June 27, 1941 and in the background, the famous Bialystok town clock.

Paining by the famous Bialystoker artist Benn from Paris.

The Bialystoker Center and Home for the Aged has a small number of copies of The Bialystoker Memorial Book (1982) for sale. They are selling copies for $50 (there may also be a shipping charge). If you are interested in acquiring a copy, please call Rabbi Leonard Blank at 212-475-7755 or write to him at:
THE BIALYSTOKER CENTER AND HOME FOR THE AGED
Attention: Rabbi Blank
228 E. Broadway
New York, NY 10002-5601
USA

BIALYSTOKER

MEMORIAL BOOK

 

Published by

BIALYSTOKER CENTER

New York

1982

 

The title page features a painting of the town clock (stadt zeiger) in Bialystok by our renowned landsman, Benn

   
     

The Bialystoker Memorial Book - Der Bialystoker Yizkor Buch, the Bialystoker Center, New York 1982
(c) Copyright by the Bialystoker Center

 

            Max Ratner                   I. Shmulewitz                 Izaak Rybal                     Sam Solasz

 Editorial Committee

I. Shmulewitz

Izaak Rybal

Rabbi Lowell S. Kronick

Book Committee of the Bialystoker Center in New York:

Max Ratner
Honorary Chairman

Sam Solasz
President

Izaak Rybal
General Secretary

Sam Solasz, Rubin Bindler, Abraham Mintz, Paul Schochet, Harold Talin, Diana Medvedev, Charles Schwecher, Yedidia L. Hamburg, Sol Krim, Mike Kremer, Jacob Beren, Dora Mintz, Morris Molosofsky, Harold Morrow, Raya Zak, Yehoshua Schachter, Rabbi Lowell S. Kronick

The Bialystoker Memorial Book

Was Published By

Empire Press

550 Empire Boulevard

Brooklyn, New York 11225

(212) 756-1473

The Bialystoker Organization granted  the permission to post the English part of the  Yizkor Book of Bialystok the ZCHOR web site, for the benefit of all who cherish the memory of the grand community of Bialystok, brutally liquidated in the Holocaust. We sincerely appreciate and thank the Bialystoker Organization for their  generosity and for their dedication to the memory of Jewish Bialystok.

 Typing and scanning the photographs were done by Mark Halpern and Ada Holtzman, July 2005

Table of Contents

The English Part

   

Page

Book Committee To Our Bialystoker Landsleit and Friends

V

  List of Contributors

VII

Max Ratner Foreword

 IX

OF OLD BIALYSTOK

 I. Shmulewitz Bialystok, A Historical Survey
The Jewish Community

3

Elijezer Fejgin Bialystok, The Beginning

5

Awrom Szmuel Herszberg One Hundred Years Ago

6

  The Rise of Zionism

10

Dr. Szoul Refoel Landau Rabbi Szmuel Mohilewer

11

Mordechaj Pogorelski The Jewish Labor Movement

12

Litman Rosental Dr. Josef Chazanowicz - a Profile

13

Dr. M. Sudarski Dr. Ludwig Zamenhof and Esperanto

14

Mordechaj Pogorelski Pogroms in the 19th Century

15

David Sohn The Pogrom Against the Jews

16

  The Martyrs of the 1906 Pogrom

18

BIALYSTOK THE MODERN PERIOD

Pejsach Kaplan Recalling Our Proud Past

21

Emanuel Nowogrodski The "Bund" in Bialystok

22

Dowid Klementynowski The Labor Zionist Movement

24

  Some of the Well-Known Jewish Physicians in Bialystok
Dr. Joseph Rubenstein, Dr. Leon Pines, Dr. Moses Zyman

25

Ossip Dymow The Habimah National Theater

26

Maks Babicz The First Jewish Art Exhibition

27

M. Sirota Torah Institutions and Leaders

28

  The Athletes and Heroes

29

Y. H. Kancypolski The Growth of the Silk Industry

30

Pynchos Ginzburg The Jewish Sports Movement

31

Szeftel Zak The Jewish Theater 1919-1939

33

  Women of Bialystoker Jewish Aristocracy
Sarah Rybalowski, Sarah Tzivya Rapoport, Feigele Gordon

34

ON THE EVE OF THE HOLOCAUST

Y. H. Kancypolski Under Polish Jurisdiction 1919-1939

37

Dowid Klementynowski The Community Before the War
The Scope of the Jewish Kehilla in Bialystok; Jewish Economic Life in Bialystok; The Jewish Press in Bialystok

38

Zwi Klementynowski The Last Kehillah in Bialystok

41

Dr. Jacob Sokol Remembering the Jewish Hospital

42

  Jewish Journalists

42

B. Tabaczynski The School and Education

43

  Jewish Printers Association

43

Dowid Klementynowski A Historical Calendar

44

  Maxim Litvinov - Our Landsman
An Interview with Litvinov's Brother in Bialystok

45

THE TRAGIC BEGINNING

Jakow Pat As the Borders Go Up in Flames

49

Awrom Szewach The Yahrzeit Candle

49

Awrom Zbar The Rise and Fall of Bialystok

50

 Awrom Zbar In Trying Times

50

 Awrom Zbar The Suffering Commences
Bialystok under Soviet Control, A New Life for the Jews

51

 Awrom Zbar The Jewish War Refugees
A Temporary Home for Jewish Writers and Artists; Bialystok

53

Chaim Lejb Fuks The Jews Welcome the Refugees

55

UNDER NAZI OPPRESSION

  The Beginning of the Holocaust
Fear and Uncertainty; The Arrival of the Nazi Murderers; The Tragic Results of the First Two Days of Nazi Rule; The Judenrat and the Beginning of Oppression; The "Thursday" Victims; "The Black Saturday"; The Anxious Wives

59

Pejsach Kaplan Rivkele the Shabbosdike

62

Isaac Czesler The Judenrat's Minutes and Orders

63

  The Yellow Badge Ordinance
The Life and Struggle of the Jews in the Ghetto; Days of uncertainty and Hope

64

  The Bitter Truth

66

  Between Life and Death

67

AGONY BEFORE THE END

  Pejsach Kaplan's Ghetto Diary
The Jewish Police in the Ghetto; Other Judenrat departments

71

  The Death of Pejsach Kaplan

74

Dr. Szymon Datner Bialystok Region in Ruins
Enslavement Before Final Liquidation; On the Eve of 1942; A Tragic Celebration in the Ghetto; The Bialystok Ghetto in the Aftermath of the Annihilation of Surrounding Jewish Communities; Bialystok Ghetto is Deluged with Jews From the Province; The Incident of the Wolkowisker girls; Three Hangings at the end of 1942; Reverberations of the Armed Revolt in the Warsaw Ghetto

75

  The Archives of Tenenbaum-Tamarof and Mersik

80

Dr. Szymon Datner Tragic Messages from the Last Jews
Suicide in the Ghetto; The Tragic End of the Jews in the provinces; The Horror of Treblinka

81

Refoel Rajzner The "Action" of February 1943
Izchok Melamed Heroically Throws Acid into the Face of a Nazi Soldier; the Painful Aftermath of the February Slaughter

83

  The Last Chapter of the Community

87

  "Yiskor" Calendar

89

  An Appeal, August 15, 1943

90

Refoel Rajzner The Ghetto in Flames
The Heroic Jewish Youth; The Massacre at Pietrasze Field; The Living Hell in the Hideouts; The Rescued Children; The Heroic Resistance of the Jewish Fighters; On the Way to Liquidation; The Murdered Herpes of Chmielna; The Jews in the Shelters; The Second Week of the Massacre; in the Mini Ghetto; the Final Journey of the Children; the Liquidation of the Mini Ghetto; The Bitter End

91

Szymon Amiel Surrounded by Blood and Fire
The Death March; in the Prison; Fleeing Captivity; In the Forest; Hiding out with the Gentiles; Back Behind Bars; Grim Bonfires in the Augustow Forests; Out Futile Plan; At Our Own Grave; Fleeing Under a Hall of Bullets; Salvation

98

  Reactions to the Resistance

102

  Fritz Gustav Friedl: Mass Murderer

103

  Trial and Punishment

104

DEATH AND RESISTANCE

Pejsach Bursztejn The Bialystoker Ghetto Uprising

109

  During the Revolt

111

  A Partial List of Martyrs

111

  The City Destroyed

113

Awrom Szewach Our Streets

113

AFTER THE LIBERATION

  A List of Jews in Bialystok After the War

117

Izchok Bornsztejn Memorial and Tribute to the Victims
Bialystok in Desolation; A Commemoration in the Synagogue; the Procession to the Ghetto Cemetery
 
Srolke Kot Bialystok in August 1944

121

  The First Yom Kippur After the War

122

Rabbi Dr. Awrom Krawetz The First Passover After the War

122

Pejsach Bursztejn With the Jews After the War
Our Brothers in Bialystok

123

Eliezer Newdow-Newadowski Bialystok - A Lamentation

124

Yedidia L. Hamburg The Beginning of a New Life

125

  After the War

126

Dr. Szymon Datner The Sacred Zabia Cemetery

127

  A Map of the Ghetto of Bialystok July 41- August 43

128

Dr. Szymon Datner The Hebrew Gymnasium

129

  Jewish Victims of the Nazis by Country

130

THE CHILDREN'S FATE

  Saving the Children

133

Chana Lin-Kizlsztejn

A Rescued Child Speaks

134

ASSISTANCE FROM OTHER BIALYSTOKERS

  The Bialystoker Center Helps
The Relief Committee Forwarded Assistanceto Landsleit in Europe

137

Louis Shreibman Minutes of the Relief Conference

138

  A Plea for Help from Landsleit in Cyprus

139

  A Letter of Appreciation from the Religious Kehilla in Bialystok

139

  How the Stimme is Appreciated in Poland

140

  Some of the Famous Jewish Doctors in Bialystok
Dr. Alexander Beigrodski, Dr. Zalman Flate, Dr. S. Citron

140

THE VICTIMS' AND WITNESSES' ACCOUNTS

Izak Rybal-Rybalowski My Visit to Bialystok in 1977

143

Chajka Grosman For Us the War Has Not Yet Ended

144

Dr. Samuel Pisar Growing Up in the Bialystoker Ghetto

145

Israel Beker My Beloved Home

146

Rabbi Lowell S. Kron Sam Solasz - From Devastation to Triumph

147

Hirsz Fejgin How I Survived the Holocaust

148

Ruwen Rybalowski A Father's Grief for His Daughter

149

A. Parizer The Famous Artist, Benn (Ben Cyon Rabinowicz)

150

Pejsach Bursztejn I Testified Against a War Criminal

151

Fannie Bojarski-Garfinkel I Disguised Myself as a Man

153

Charles Schwecher A Walk to Death: My Father's Story

154

Leon Szereniec A Bialystoker Jew in Pawjak

156

Alys Kremer A Legacy for the Second Generation

157

Tzirl (Berkowicz) Steingart Forever in My Memory

158

Nechama (Drogoczynski) Dinur Reunion After a Painful Journey

159

BIALYSTOKERS ALL OVER THE WORLD

Bialystokers in the United States

David Sohn The First Bialystoker in America

165

  Bialystok Relief Work

167

  Founders and Leaders of the Bialystok Center
Louis Davis, Alter Kushes, Philip Rosenthal, Jacob Cohen

167

Izaak Rybal-Rybalowski Bialystoker Center and Home - 50 Years
The Bialystok Spirit; Beginning with Devotion; A Home with Heart and Soul; From a Modest Beginning to Great Accomplishments; A Fine Institution in Good Hands

168

  60th Anniversary of Bialystoker Stimme

170

  The Ladies Auxiliary

170

  The Young Men's Benevolent Association

171

  Club of Bialystoker Friends
Bialystoker Jews in America - A Record of Proud Achievement; The David Sohn Picture Album

172

Pejsach Albert The Bialystoker Synagogue in New York

172

Szmuel Izchaki Max Ratner - A Bialystoker with a Heart
The Ratner Brothers: Max, Leonard, Harry, Charles

173

Irving I. Stone My Bialystoker Connection

175

Rabbi Lowell S. Kronick Izaak Rybal - A Profile

176

Louis Silver David Sohn, Leader of the Landsleit

177

Zalman Heller The Family of David Sohn

178

Noami Kavee and Mildred Spiegel David Sohn, Husband and Father

179

Bialystokers in Israel

Zalman Yerushalmi and Kopel Lew Bialystoker Center in Israel

183

  Jews in Their New Home

184

Chaim Israeli Zalman Yerushalmi - One of the Pioneers

184

Avraham Wertheim A New Settlement in Israel

185

Avraham Lis Pioneers in Israel

186

  Kiriat Bialystok - a New Beginning

187

  The World Convention in New York

188

Bialystokers in Australia

Pejsach Albert The Bialystoker Center in Australia

191

Bialystokers in Argentina

Wolf Czynski The Fiftieth Anniversary of the Bialystokers in Argentina

195

  The Bialystoker Community in Villa Lynch

196

Bialystokers in France

David Podliachouk The Bialystoker Community in France

199

Dr. Samuel Pisar A Reminder and a Warning

200

Fiszl Fajnfeld The French Committee After the War

201

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

202

 

CONTENTS

203

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TO OUR BIALYSTOKER LANDSLEIT AND FRIENDS

At last, after arduous effort, we present our landsleit and friends with this Bialystoker Memorial Book, to honor our once vibrant hometown and the brave resistance and ultimate destruction of its great Jewish community.

Our landsmanschaft was unable to publish this book earlier, as planned. At the 1970 Bialystoker world convention in Israel, it was decided to issue a memorial book as soon as possible. In the following years, our Center in New York carried on negotiations with our counterparts in Israel to prepare and issue the book jointly. Regrettably, this attempt at collaboration failed.

Nevertheless, we were not discouraged and took it upon ourselves – as a sacred task – publish the volume. We knew in advance the difficulties that lay ahead, and that did, in fact, materialize.

The Bialystoker Memorial Book appears at a time of resurgent neo-Nazism, anti-Semitism and increasing worldwide opposition to the State of Israel from the political left and right. Furthermore, we have witnessed the spectacle of so-called “experts” – some respectable academicians among them – denying the Holocaust ever occurred and minimizing the extent of Jewish victimization. We can expect such denials to continue. This book contains eyewitness accounts of the brutality and suffering; Bialystok is an example of what went on in Europe during the late 1930s and 1940s. We hope we have made it harder for the falsifiers of history to do their work.

Although much has been written about the Jewish community of Bialystok, its destruction and the resistance, this volume has gathered scattered articles and documents into one anthology. It wasn’t easy to organize them into a coherent unit.

We hope the Bialystoker Memorial Book will serve as a worthy monument to Jewish Bialystok, whose memory remains so precious to us. We have not been content to provide just the history of Bialystok, its development and, finally, its end in the Holocaust. We have also included the story of how surviving Bialy­stoker Jews tried to rebuild their community – to no avail – after the war. And we have traced to the present day the activities of landsleit in the United States, Israel, Argentina and France, which demonstrate the unconquerable Bialystoker spirit.

Had this volume been published ten years ago, it would have included the valuable perspectives of many who are no longer with us. Nevertheless, we believe we have faithfully presented a comprehensive and accurate picture.

Many thanks to our wonderful supporters, who responded generously to the appeal of our Board of Governors for financial assistance. We wish to credit the following individuals, whose participation in the project was indispensable: Max Ratner of Cleveland, our distinguished Bialystoker landsman and leading activist in the American Jewish community, who was the driving force behind this book; Izaak Rybal-Rybalowski, General Secretary of the Bialystoker Center, Home and Infirmary for the Aged, who invested much time and energy in the preparation of the volume; I. Shmulewitz, the well-known Yiddish journalist and specialist on Holocaust themes, who edited the Yiddish manuscript of the volume; Rabbi Lowell S. Kronick, who rendered the English translation, making the book accessible to the children and grandchildren of survivors; Hirsh Gansbourg of Empire Press, whose expertise as a printer guaranteed the quality of the production; Louis Evans, a master Yiddish proofreader, whose attention to detail assured the accuracy of the Yiddish manuscript; and Ginger Bramson, a professional copy editor, who made valuable stylistic suggestions for the English text.

 We should like to thank our landsleit in Argentina, Israel, Australia and other countries for their help in bringing this book to light. The Bialystokers in Argentina will translate this work into Spanish so their chil­dren can know their heritage.

 We hope the readers of this volume will feel that the Jewish community in Bialystok has been effectively memorialized. And we trust that those who survived the Nazi era and lost loved ones will be satisfied that their story has been properly told. May Bialystok remain a shining example of Eastern European Jewish life for generations to come.

 The Bialystoker Memorial Book Committee

New York, December 1981

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THE FOLLOWING HAVE MADE MAJOR

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE BIALYSTOK MEMORIAL

VOLUME IN MEMORY OF THEIR LOVED ONES:

 

In loving memory of Our Parents

BEJNUSZ AND FRUME LEJA FEJGIN

SZYMON AND MIRIAM KNYSZINSKI

by Hirsz and Stela Fejgin

 

 

In loving memory of Our Parents

MOJSZE AND PESZE RATOWCER

by Max and Betty Ratner

 

In loving memory of Our Parents

ABRAHAM AND MINNIE PODOLSKY

by Max and Tibby Podell

 

 

In loving memory of Our Parents

ABRAHAM AND SOPHIE DANE

by Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell Dane

 

In loving memory of Our Parents

JEAN AND HYMAN GOLDBERG

DWEJRE AND MEIR RYBALOWSKI

by Izaak and Molly Rybal

 

In loving memory of Our Father

DANIEL ABELSON

by Herman and Jane Abelson

Maurice and Lorraine Abraham

 

 

In loving memory of Our Grandmother

GOLDIE KATZ

and our family that perished in Bialystok

by Sonia Abelson and Diana Medvedev

 

 

In loving memory of Our Parents

SZAJA AND FRIEDA DOBRYMAN

ABRAHAM AND JUDITH GOLDBERG

by Joseph and Nettie Dobryman

In loving memory of Our Husband and Father

GEORGE GERING

by Edith, Sheldon and Norman Gering

 

In loving memory of Our Parents

SZAMAJ AND ESTER SOLASZ

by Rose and Sam Solasz

 

In loving memory of Our Brothers

SZLOJME AND JANKL ZYLBERSZTEIN

And their families

by Abe and Dora Zylbersztein-Mintz

 

In loving memory of

LAZAR SHABRY (SZABRYNSKI)

by Felicia Dresner and Karl Shabry

 

In loving memory of My Grandparents

LOUIS AND MARY DAVIS

by Michael Saperstein

 

 

 Home


Book Committee of the Bialystoker Center in New York
First Row, L. to R.: Diana Medvedev, Rubin Bindler, Sam Solasz, I. Shmulewitz, Raya Zak, Yedidia L. Hamburg. Second Row: Yehoshua Schachter, Morris Molosofsky, Paul Schochet, Dora Mintz, Abraham Mintz, Izaak Rybal. Third Row: Sal Krim, Mike Kremer, Charles Schwecher, Rabbi Lowell S. Kronick, Jacob Beren, Harold Talin, Harold Morrow.

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FOREWORD

 

While contemplating this volume, I recalled my gentle childhood days. Among my cher­ished memorabilia is a notebook from my fourth-grade class at the Bet Hasefer Haamimi Haivri Harishon in Bialystok, the forerunner of the Tarbut Schools. On the first page in Hebrew is a song titled “The Promise” and on the next page, Hatikvah, “The Hope.” These two titles capsulize the meaning of this publica­tion for me.

I visited Jewish cemeteries in many coun­tries all over the world; I saw markers from almost every century of our dispersion. Occa­sionally, one observes an old synagogue or ruins. One finds reports by historians, govern­ment writers, quasi-professionals who try to bind bits of history together. Much is conjec­ture; the material is often theoretical and ambiguous. This sense became all the more pronounced when, on a trip to Israel in 1976, I stopped off to visit Bialystok, the city of my roots.

I read much of the Holocaust literature; I saw movies and spoke with fortunate survi­vors. But my birthplace’s transformation shocked me beyond belief.

Jews lived in the land of Poland before there was a Poland. Over the course of a millennium, they created a remarkable civilization characterized by deep piety, rich cultural achievement and outstanding intellectual pursuits.

In 1941 the Nazis invaded Poland and within four years they put to death three million Jewish men, women and children, and destroyed all that had been created over the course of a thousand years.

In 1900, Bialystok was the third largest industrial city in Russia. Of 65,000, 64 percent were Jews. In 1913, the population was 91,000 of whom 60,000 were Jewish. Over 350,000 Jews resided in Bialystok and its provinces. The Jewish community had adjusted as dias­pora life and the Czar’s whims permitted. It drew on an inner creative strength to overcome assimilation; neither did it stagnate. At the beginning of the Haskalah movement, the Jews of Bialystok knew Torah and also participated in the wider cultural and educational life of this cosmopolitan community. They fought for civil liberties and established health-care and welfare networks. Cooperative effort and unity enabled them to survive with honor and dignity. They established homes for the aged, orphanages, theaters, libraries, schools, social clubs, youth groups, Zionist organizations and labor unions.

The Bialystok Jewish community pro­duced doctors of national prominence, histori­ans, writers, scientists and professors. There was pride in this exhilirating city.

Bialystok’s Jewry was active in the rebirth of Israel before Zionism was formally estab­lished by Dr. Herzl in 1897. In the early 1880’s, a group known as “BILU” (House of Israel Go Forth) was formed in Russia with offices in Bialystok. The first group left for Israel in 1882 and founded Rishon Lezion (with the help of the Rothschilds). My parents married in 1889. They wanted to join the second group but were refused permission to leave by the Russian government. In the ensuing years immigrants continuously flowed from Bialystok to Israel. From my class in 1920, 14 out of 29 left for Israel by 1935.

I still remember my first day of school, when I was three, in 1910; the first electrified weaving loom in our factory in 1911 that illumi­nated my house on Czysta Street; the 300th anniversary parade of the Russian kingdom of Peter the Great; Czar Nicholas’ visit to Bialys­tok in 1913; the beginning of World War I in 1914, when three hundred children on the way to school were killed by bombs dropped from German warplanes; a celebration of the Balfour Declaration in 1917, when my mother donated her gold earrings to the Zionist cause. I have vivid recollections of attending the first school in which Hebrew was the language of instruc­tion, which opened in 1918, one day after the end of the German occupation and the creation of the new independent Poland. I remember my first membership in a Zionist club at our school. I treasure the notebooks of my history and geo­graphy courses and my Hebrew songbook. The well-known teachers Lejb Fajans and Mojsze Lewin were translating Russian books into Hebrew, since there were no Hebrew texts. In 1920, during the war between Poland and Com­munist Russia, my brother Kalman (Charles), while still in U.S. Army uniform, came to Bia­lystok and luckily we followed his advice and arrived at Ellis Island in N.Y. on January 1, 1921. In my later years, in the 1960’s and 70’s, I visited Israel and met teachers and many stu­dents of our class who emigrated there.

I wish to impart a message and an appeal to the younger, English readers of this memor­ial volume. You, the second generation, chil­dren of Bialystoker parents, are our link to the future. We invested much time and effort to enable you to read about the heritage of our beloved birthplace in your own language. There is much in these pages that will inspire you, affect the way you think and feel for the rest of your lives. You will acquire an enhanced sense of your origins and thereby a richer con­cept of your identity. I hope you will have a clearer view of the direction your lives will take, as you embark upon the 21st century. That is my message.

I also appeal to you to serve as the vehicle for your parents’ immortality. There is much in our experience, particularly as Bialystokers, that will have meaning for you. Don’t let apathy finish what Hitler started – to eradicate the history and culture of our Jewish people. Let Bialystok and all that it meant to us live on through you and your children.

Bialystok now has over 268,000 inhabi­tants –  seven are Jews. Its historical significance to Jewish life has come to an end. It is now just another page of our people’s history. You will find Bialystokers in every corner of the world, continuing in the spirit of their birthplace. This book represents my promise and hope for future generations to be mindful of their loss and proud of their heritage.

 

Max Ratner

Cleveland, Ohio

 

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