"Pinkas Hakehilot" - Encyclopedia of Jewish Communities - Poland; Vol. 4: Warsaw and District, Yad Vashem, Jerusalem 1989

Plock (Plock) (Region: Plock; Province: Warsaw).

Pages 358 - 372

Written by Abrahan Wein
Translated from the Hebrew by Morris Gradel

Devi Tuszynski: Miniature

Notes, courtesy of the translator Morris Gradel

 Agudat Israel:
Non-Zionist Orthodox Jewish political movement organised in 1912 in Europe.

 The Bund:
A political organisation of Jews formed in Vilna in 1897 to promote labour causes, Jewish nationalism, and Yiddish in eastern Europe.

 Bet Midrash:
A traditional house of study.

The Jewish religious revivalist movement originating in eastern Europe in the late 18th century. It maintains many characteristics of Polish life of that period, including its dress. Diverse sects of Chasidism hail from different towns and follow different leaders or "rebbes". The leading rebbe of a Chasidic sect (also known as the Tsaddik) is often held to possess wondrous mediatory powers with the divine.

The Gaon, or eminent one, was the head or dean of a rabbinical academy in Babylonia from the 6th to the 11th centuries. After the Talmud was edited the various geonim decided questions of Jewish law based on its traditions.

European Jewish "enlightenment", which introduced Jews to modern ways of expression and thought from about 1750 to about 1880. Its disciples were "maskilim".

 The "Joint"
Joint Distribution Committee, founded in USA in 1914 to help Jewish communities worldwide.

 Mitnaged (pl. mitnagdim):
"Opponents" of the emerging Chasidic movement, formed after Rabbi Elijah, the Gaon of Vilna, placed the Chasidim under ban (cherem - excommunication from the Jewish community imposed occasionally in the Middle Ages). The division into Chasidic and Mitnagdic camps persists among ultra-Orthodox Jews.

Orthodox Zionist movement founded in Vilna in 1902.

Organisation for Rehabilitation and Training - Jewish organisation founded in 1880 to develop skilled job training. It sets up vocational schools and programmes.

 Poalei Zion:
Workers of Zion - a Marxist Jewish party founded in 1906.

The dialectical mode of talmudic argument; its detractors regard it as hairsplitting casuistry.

Followers of the radically nationalist Zionist movement led by Ze’ev Jabotinsky; youth movement Beitar.

 Shabtai Zwi:
A false "messiah" of the 17th century.

A school for training younger students in traditional Jewish sources and older students in Talmud to prepare them as rabbis.

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