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Research Notes on The Hungarian Holocaust

 

Michael Honey

14th July, 2008

 

This presentation of the terrible events in Hungary and Auschwitz from about the 1st May, 1944 to the 25th July 1944 is based primarily on two lists of trains about the unfortunate Jews who lived in the provinces of Hungary proper and who lived in the added provinces which the Germans had ceded to the Hungarian government because Hungary fought as allies of Nazi Germany during World War II. 

 

These added provinces were in Serbia to the south of Hungary, Transylvania (Romania) to the east Sub Carpahtia (Ukraina) and Slovakia to the north.  Hungary had claimed these added provinces in order to establish again what Hungarians refer to as:  "Greater Hungary".

 

I have made a tabulation of the data from these two lists;

 

  1. JUDr. MikulᚠGaško of Košice (pronounced Koshice) in Slovakia put the list on the internet under the Web Site.http://147.232.145.11/history/zidovsky/vlaksmrti.htm also as an Appendix to The Politics of Genocide 3).  The Gaško list was made from the railway records of the Košice railway station.  It is a most useful list recording the date of each train passing Košice, the place of origin of each train and the number of people being shipped.
     
  2. The Leo Glaser list was made by the Capo of the Kleiderkammer (Clothing Department) at the arrival rail ramp in Birkenau Auschwitz.  This list records only date of arrival of each train, a general description of the prisoners such as “Hungarian Jews” and it records the number of men selected to be prisoners able to do manual labour.

 

In the transports from Backa Topola and from Budapest (Kistarcsa) before the Eichmann Action started on 14th May 1944.there were 3,800 Hungarian Jews sent to Auschwitz, of those 2,698 were killed.

 

Then, and in addition 22,244 Hungarian Jews were killed of those who came to Auxchwitz in the 9 additional Glaser trains,

All reference to these will also be marked in red color in the following text.

 

This makes the following sum;                                                                               Arrived        People

                                                                                                                        Auschwitz      Killed

Jews sent from Budapest and Backo Topola, arrived Auschwitz 2nd May, 1944            3,800          2,698

Jews sent from about 55 Ghetos established by the Hungarian Government             402,117       298,739

9 more trains as per Glaser List (these are in the tabulation 3160 people per train)     28,440        22,244

Totals 1st May 1944 up to 25th July 1944, twelve weeks.                                         434,357       323,681

 

The data from both the Gaško and the Glaser Lists have been put in columns next to each other in their consecutive date order in the following large tabulation of all the trains.  Dates of arrival in Auschwitz obviously follow dates when the trains passed through Kosice.  This means that eventually this obvious overlap cannot follow, thus Glaser trains have to be added in the tabulation in order to preserve this logic.  The trains added in this way are listed train Nos. a to i and are listed in the red color

 

The Gaško list reports details on 137 trains, when we include the two trains reported on 2nd May in the Auschwitz Chronicle1) and in Jalkut Moreshet2) this makes 139 trains.  These brought to the killing ground at Auschwitz 402,117 people according to the information on the 139 trains.  Leo Glaser did not record the number arriving, that was not his business at the arrival ramp.  His duty was to provide prison clothing for those who passed the selection and were admitted to the camp.  We have however the reports from Ferenczy and from Vesenmayer in Table 19.1, see The Politics of Genocide by Randolph L. Braham3) that the total deportation figures are 434,351 and 437,402 for the respective sources.  The above figures have been arranged to agree closely to Ferenczy’s figure of 434,351. 

 

The estimate for those killed in the same period based on these figures for the 139 trains plus the 9 trains listed as arriving by the Glaser list is 323,681.  The average for each of the 9 trains, 3,160 people has been arrived at by equating the people arriving to the Ferenczy figure  The report from Glasers list that 148 trains arrived from Hungary between the dates 2nd May to 25th July 1944 is backed up by the above mentioned Table 19.1 for this also reports that there were 55 ghettos and 147 trains.  The discrepancy in the number of trains may be that Leo Glaser does not differentiate between Hungarian and Slovak Jews.  Indeed under German rule there was a southern part of Slovakia which was considered Hungarian and then there was a northern part which was then an independent Slovak state.  There is another possibility for this discrepancy and that is reported in The Politics of Genocide by Randolph L. Braham3) on p. 608, Vol.2 as Extraordinary Deportations.  Here 21,700 Jews are said to have been deported by Hungarian and German military authorities and probably do not figure in Ferenczy's reports.  Trains from Baja which left May 25 -27 are mentioned to have stopped at Gaensendorf to unload 45 dead.  This is most probably a typo mistake the name of this station should be Gaenserndorf in Austria quite near the Slovakian border and the city of Bratislava.  This is one station north of the Strasshof camp where 30,000 Jews were to be housed ‘on ice, Eichman’s words. The train route from here enters Moravia and north to Krakow via Auschwitz.  It is quite probable that Baia and Szekesfehervar (SW of Budapest) are two additional ghettos in the list of 55.  Trains from these two ghettos never went through Kosice which is in the east of Slovakia.

 

323,681 / 434,357 = 75%

 

Leo Glaser’s letter to the Military Governor at Linz dated 5th August, 1945 estimated that only 20% of arrivals were admitted to the camp, see his letter and English translation in the Appendix to this Research Note.   The estimate in the train analysis tabulation does show that based on both the Gaško and Glaser lists 25% of the people were admitted to the camps.

 

Himmler had the SS divided into two groups of officials the RSHA (Reichssicherheitszentralstelle) and the WVHA (Wirtschafts- und Verwaltungshauptamt).  These two bodies had in 1944 two opposing policies.  The RSHA wanted to ‘relocate and kill as many Jews as possible'.  The WVHA needed slave labour to clear the rubble of allied bombing and to work in the essential industries for the German war effort.  Eichmann was a member of the RSHA.  In the midst of the Hungarian action the WVHA wrote to Eichmann about the many requests for labour in nearby Austria and there was a general pressure from many bodies to stop this very rapid rate of killing.  Not least were the reactions in the west to the reports of Raoul Wallenberg, the Swedish envoy then in Budapest. With these influences in the background Eichmann offered a deal to Kaestner to put 30,000 Jews ‘on ice’ (Eichmann’s phrase).  In order to make the deal The Jewish community of Budapest had to advance an exorbitant fee in cash. This sort of demand for a ransom was used by the nobility in times past to extricate Jews from jail on trumped up charges of blood libel and the like.  The deal was made and transports of Jews probably left Hungary for Strasshof in Austria after 16th June and possibly also after 25th June.  If these people were in similar transports then this would account for 10 trains each about 3,000 people for each train.  Subsequent reports say that the occupancy of Strasshof was only 20,787 people, see The Politics of Genocide by Randolph L. Braham3) p.652.  We do not know how many Jews were further relocated to other places of slave labour work.

 

Jewish people sent to Strasshof Austria for slave labor 20,787
Total of Jewish people expelled from territories of Hungary 455,144

 

As far as the tabulation is concerned nine trains have been added in red color.  Each probably had about 3,160 people.  This has been done in order to match the ends of all the Glaser List with that of the Gaško List entries on the 25th July, 1944, the end of the Eichman Action. 

 

We do not know the origin in Hungary of the Jews sent in these added nine trains recorded in the Glaser list.  It is probable that these trains went by way of Austria as if they were going to Strasshof but were then diverted past Vienna, through Moravia and Bohumin to Poland and Auschwitz.  What we do know is that they arrived as per the Glaser List and some people from them were selected to live.  The Glaser list was made in Auschwitz where on the rail ramp the place of origin of the start of the train was not recorded.

 

What we do know is that they arrived as per the Glaser List and people from them were selected to live as if they were trains that we knew the origin of. The arrival in Auschwitz count of Hungarian Trains marked on the Glaser List ‘ung.Juden’.  Two trains are listed in addition right at the begin of the tabulation.  These are recorded as arriving see Auschwitz Chronicle1) 2nd May, 1944 page 618 by Danuta Czech. (Eng. Translation, Publ. By I.B. Tauris, London 1990).  Also see Jalkut Moreshet, May 1985, Article by Sari Reuveni.  Three first trains (Danuta Czech says 3) of the Eichmann Action are also listed in the Auschwitz Chronicle1) see p.627 as arriving at the Auschwitz railway ramp on 16th May 1944.  These were the trains from Nyiregyhaza, Mukačevo and Košice as per the enclosed analysis of trains.

 

For reasons which are not really explained the Auschwitz Chronicle 1) becomes very sparse in data on the Hungarian Action.  Even the number of them is not given in reports subsequent to the 16th May report which says 3.  Thus the paragraph for 17th May and subsequent reports up to 25th July, 1944 merely record that out of RSHA transports from Hiungary some twins are selected.  It is not possible to link these paragraphs to either the Glaser List or the Gaško List.  These paragraphs continue to be written in this fashion uselessly only concentrating on the twins which are among those selected to live.  This book was written in communist times and reflects neglect of the real issues and data which are in themselves very dramatic.

 

2 of the 9 trains added due to the Glaser List are almost certainly those from Baia which stopped at Gänserndorf, Austria.  These did not go through Košice see The Politics of Genocide 3).   Thus Barcs and Szekesfehervár were probably similar ghettos.  The geographic location of each ghetto is most important and thus a map of all the ghettos was drawn, see Appendix 3.

 

Ghettos of the Hungarian Action

(listed from the west)

 

1. Sopron 29.  Szeged
2. Szombathely 30.  Szolnok
3. Sárvár 31.  Diosgyör
4. Nagykanizsa 32.  Miskolc
5. Pápa 33.  Békescsaba
6. Dunajska Streda (Dunaszerdahe) 34.  Košice (Kassa)
7. Barcs 35.  Sátoraljaujhely
8. Györ 37.  Nyiregyháza
9. Kaposvár 38.  Oradea (Nagyvárod)
10.   Nove Zamky (Érsekújvár) 39.  Kisvárda
11. Komárno (Komárom)          40.  Užhorod (Ungwar)
12. Pécs 41.  Mátészalka
13. Szekesfehervár 42.  Mukačevo (Munkács)
14. Levice (Léva) 43.  Berehovo (Beregszász)
15. Paks 44.  Simleu Silvaniei (Szilágysomló)
16. Baja 45.  Satu Mare (Szatmámémeti)
17. Óbuda 46.  Vynohradiv (Nagyszöllös)
18.   Budakalasz 47.  Chust (Huszt)
19. Békesmegyer 48.  Tačev (Técsö))
20. Szásrégen 49.  Baja Mare (Nagybánya)
21. Balassagyarmat 50.   Cluj Napoca (Kolozsvár)
22. Kistarcsa 51.   Okormezo (Ökörmezö)
23. Rákoscaba 52.   Solotvina (Aknaszlatina)
24. Bacsalmás 53.   Sighetu Marmatiei (Mármarossziget)
25. Monor 54.  Dej (Dés)
26. Bačka Topola 55.  Viseu de Sus (Felsövisó)
27. Keckscemét  56.  Bistrita (Beszterce)
28. Salgotarján 57.  Tirgu Mures (Márosvásárhely)

 

Those marked in red color account for the origin of 4 (2 for Baia) out of the 9 added trains due to the Glaser List.  The other 5 trains were probably trains diverted from Debrecen, Szeged and Szolnok, these could be classed as Strasshof diversions.  The only way to confirm these is by examining local archives of these three towns.  There is a statement on ‘Extraordinary Deportations, see The Politics of Genocide by Randolph L. Braham, p. 608 3).  Some 21,700 Jews were deported from the provinces bordering Jugoslavia,  These may have accounted for about 7 trains.  It is tempting to assume that the 9 extra Glaser train originated 2 from Baia and 7 from the Jugoslav border region. 

 

Prof. Randolph L. Braham lists the clue to this in his book, the Politics of Genocide, Vol. II page 643/644.  Here is described the journey from Baja late in May 1944, a town on the Danube in the south of Hungary.  The book says how the train was waiting fully laden in the heat of summer and then went through Gänsendorf another two days where on opening the doors it was found that there were already 45 corpses of people who died on the train.

 

The problem is that Gänsendorf does not exist, not in Hungary, not in Slovakia and not in Austria.  A search of rail routes from Hungary into Austria reveals the town of Bruck an der Leitha as a rail junction and the next station further north is Gänserndorf with an ”r” inserted, this appears to be just a “typo” mistake in the printing of  the Politics of Genocide.

 

But it is sure that Gänserndorf is the correct place name, because this is just one station north of Strasshof an der Nordbahn which is the correct site of the camp of the intended 30,000 Hungarian slaves which the Germans needed for manual labour.  The map as redrawn including rail routes shows Gänserndorf and Strasshof an der Nordbahn.  These are much further north near the Moravian border to the northeast of Vienna.  And without doubt the alternative southern rail route to Auschwitz.

 

It is a major lacuna in the book by Prof. Randolph L. Braham, The Politics of Genocide that he has totally failed to follow up what was done at the fictitious Gänsendorf (without an ‘r’) to establish what happened to 45 dead bodies nor to provide any evidence against Obersturmbannführer Hermann A. Krumey who was appointed to be the Befehlshaber in Vienna.  How was it that Strasshof  received only 20,787 people instead of the 30,000 for which a substantial ransom was paid.  Where did the 9,213 people go?  The good  professor has completely failed to follow these points up, nor did these points come up at any of the unsuccessful Krumey trials in  Austria.  There are other lacuna in the book Politics of Genocide such as discrepancies for ghettos where insufficient people were shipped to the extermination site Auschwitz.  These discrepancies are a subject of its own studies, need to be done on Pinkasei Kehila.  The major problem here is that Pinkasei Kehila were not written for Subcarpathian Ukraina, previously Czechoslovakia and for Transylvania now Romania.  The fates of 90,000 people who were in the Gaško and Glaser trains cannot be properly followed up because the data has not been researched nor written up for these ceded Hungarian regions.

 

The trains listed by Gaško arrived every day except for two periods one of these is 16th to 25th June when the Strasshof trains started and the other period of interruption in the rate of trains arriving is from  11th to 22nd of July when the Hungarian action was almost over.  About the former stoppage a note on p. 652 of the Auschwitz Chronicle 1) explains that this was to accelerate the action thus;

 

“Hoess was probably in Budapest 16th to 26th June during a several day interruption in the preparation of the transport trains.”

 

In this June stoppage several things were probably taking place at the same time.  To name but two:

 

 

A map has been made of all the departure points known from the Gaško List and from the reference works listed below.  The internment centers were more or less jails at Backa Topola (now in Serbia south of Subotica), Nagykanizsa, Sarvar, Kistarcsa (in Budapest near the train departure point Rakoscaba) and probably also Baia, played an important part in the continuing rate of dispatch of trains from Hungary during these terrible 12 weeks.  Eichmann true to his masters in the RSHA (Reichssicherheitszentralstelle) in Berlin wanted to kill as many Jews as possible.  Main train routes are indicated on the map as this was the primary means of the Genocide Action.

 

This more accurate estimate could be arrived at through the finding of the Glaser list which he sent to the American Military Authority in Linz on 5th August 1945 see Appendix 2.  This is part of a collection of papers which were donated to Yad Vashem in about 1970 by an American freelance correspondent called I.F. Stone when he started his retirement.  

 

The matter was flagged up to me by Gabor Hirsch, now of Esslingen, Switzerland.  Gabor raised with me several matters about his imprisonment in Auschwitz.

 

I left Glaser in Auschwitz on Christmas Eve 1944 in the first evacuation march to Loeslau (Wodzislaw Slaski).  For the period 9th July to 24th Dec 1944 I was a runner (Laeufer) of the Capo Kleiderkammer, none other than Leo Glaser. Thereafter I had a very difficult four months being transported to Gross Rosen, Buchenwald, Mauthausen and by a forced march further to Gunskirchen.  This was a very crowded forest camp without fences at which we were left to starve as we were basically not given any food, there was very little water, one tap served the whole camp of several thousand people.  The camp was infested with lice and vermin.

 

On 4th May 1945 I was crawling on my belly at night trying to escape from this hellhole where we were left to slowly die.  A guard stopped me and by coincidence it was Leo Glaser, now in SS uniform and carrying a rifle.  Although it was night there was enough moonlight for us both to recognise one another.  The erstwhile Capo of the Kleiderkammer had an atrophied right arm to make him easily recognisable.  As he challenged me he asked what I was doing crawling through the forest.  And I told him I was trying to escape.  We could hear the artillery of the Americans by this time.  He said that the countryside is full of armed men and that I should return to the camp for I would soon be freed.  I however I asked him to give me some food.  He said he was on guard duty and had nothing on him.  He said to come again to this place tomorrow and he will bring me some food.  I reluctantly took his advice and starved for another 24 hours.  Next night I crawled out to the same place but he was not there.  I saw a hut at the back of a clearing and went there.  This hut was obviously where the guards were quartered.  The hut appeared to have been abandoned in a hurry.  There was no food there.  I went back to the camp and the first person I met was Honza Polak whom I knew from Theresienstadt.  Honza now lives in Frankfurt and we are still in touch.  I told him that the guards are gone and we are free to leave the camp and so we walked out into the night free on the evening of 5th May 1945.

 

Notes:

1)        Auschwitz Chronicle 2nd May, 1944 page 618 by Danuta Czech.  Eng. Translation, Publ. by I.B. Tauris, London 1990

2)        Jalkut Moreshet, May 1985, Article by Sari Reuveni

3)       The Politics of Genocide by Randolph L. Braham, publ. by Columbia University Press

4)       Leo Glaser letter & list to the Military Governor at Linz dated 5th August, 1945

 

Appendix :

1.         Gaško List (obtainable on the internet, but also reprinted in The Politics of Genocide)

2.         Glaser Letter (and English  translation) dated 5th Aug., 1945 with six page List. (Appendix II)

3.         Map of Hungary, incl. Slovakia, Subcarpathian territory (now Ukraine), Transylvania (now

            Romania) and Serbia marked to show all train departures. Appendix III

4.         Aerial Photograph of Auschwitz Taken by the Royal Air Force during WWII  Appendix IV

 

 

Appendix II

The Original Glaser Letter with List 5th August 1945

 (Source "Yad Vashem" Archives)

 

  Click to enlarge  
     
  The Translation to English  
  Translated by Michael Honey  
     

Copy                              3686-PS  

 

Director Leo Glaser

Lambach 5th August, 1945

 

                                       To the

                                       American Military Authority in Linz

 

Subject:      SS  - Hauptsturmfuehrer Krammer of the Concentration Camp

                  Bergen Belsen.                                                                  

 

             I have learnt through the press and radio that Hauptsturmfuehrer Krammer the Commandant of the Concentration Camp Bergen Belsen is accused of the murder of 27,000 Jews.  In the year 1944 Krammer was the Commandant of the Concentration Camp of Auschwitz II Birkenau.

              During his command and in the period from May 1944 until 20th September 1944  650,000 Jews (men women and children) were killed with poison gas and the bodies were burnt in the crematoria.  This is the greatest mass murder of all time.  In the above cited period approximately 825,000 Jews from all the conquered lands were brought to Auschwitz,   About 20%of this total figure (men and women) came into the camp, the rest were destroyed.

                In the enclosure I take the liberty to attach a detailed listing of the male arrivals admitted from Hungarian transports to the camp at Auschwitz.  The numbers of women arriving is nearly the same as men if not somewhat higher.

                  I was held confined seven years in various concentration camps as a Political Prisoner until my freeing on 6th May this year and I was from October 1942 until January 1945 in Auschwitz Birkenau.  I am an eye witness of the above mentioned gruesome deeds and had the opportunity to make notes about the arriving trains.  I carried these notes on my person in constant danger to my life  up to my gaining freedom.

                  For this Hungarian Jewish Action Adolf  Hitler specially appointed and put in authority the SS Obrsturmbannfuehrer Hess who was known for his brutality and cruelty, The Lagerkommandant was SS Hauptsturmfuehrer Kramer and the First Preventive Detention Camp Kommandant  was the SS Hauptsturmfuehrer Schwartzhuber.  SS Hauptsturmfuehrer Moll carried out his bloody handiwork completely and in particularly cruel and bestial ways.  He had the overall supervision for the operation and organisation of the work of the 4 Krematoria.

                  Should these data be of interest to anyone I respectfully ask the American Military command, to use this letter as my evidence and forward it on.  I am ready at any time to explain the data.

                                                                   

                                      Signed
                                           Leo Glaser

Director of the Insurance Company of the

Austrian Federal Lands Vienna,

Now at Elisabeth Street 24, Vienna 1
 

     
Combination Table May 1944 June 1944
(Click to enlarge) (Click to enlarge) (Click to enlarge)
     
July 1944 August 1944 September 1944
(Click to enlarge) (Click to enlarge) (Click to enlarge)
     

 

Train Analysis of the Hungarian Genocide Action

 

Michael Honey 27.01.08

 

 

      בשביל מידע הזאת צריך להניח ש 10% יותר נשים נבחרו לחיים מגברים (ברשימות של גלאסר הוא כותב על גברים אבל הוא אומר שיותר נשים נבחרו מגברים) המספר של אנשים שנהרגו בא מהוראת גברים ונשים שנבחרו לחיים, ילדים נהרגו.

 

For the purpose of this analysis it is assumed that 10% more women were selected than men (Glaser lists only men selected, but he says more women were selected than men)  The number of people killed is arrived at by subtracting the numbers of men and women selected for life, children were killed.

 

 

Hungarian Genocide Action 1944

Gaško List

Glaser List

This Analysis

Testimonies by

Name

From Home

Resided at

or transport from

Date Arr. Košice

Train No.

People Arriving

Date Arr. Birkenau

Men selected

Women

selected

People

Killed

* Not on Gaško and Glaser Lists

 

Kistarcsa, Budapest

29th Apr.

*?

1800, men

2nd May

486

 

2698

Backa Topola

30th Apr.

2000

2nd May

 

616

Miriam Berko

b.4.2.1929

Aft. Pesach

May

Vencesello to Nyiregyhaza

14th May

1

3200

16th May

221

243

2736

 

 

Mukačevo

14th May

2

3169

16th May

173

190

2806

 

 

Košice

16th May

3

3055

17th May

247

272

2536

Leah Kahan

Gruenwald b.1922

 

Sucha Bronika

to Beregszasz

 

16th May

 

4

 

3818

 

18th May

309

340

3169

Shlomo Donat

b.1919

 

Beregszasz

 

 

Sighetul Marmatiei

16th May

5

3007

18th May

441

481

2085

 

 

Mukačevo

16th May

6

3629

18th May

484

532

2613

 

 

Košice

16th May

7

3629

18th May

33

36

3560

 

 

Košice

17th May

8

3352

19th May

581

639

2132

Hermann Berkovits

b.2.2.1914

 

Herincsen

From Užhorod

17th May

9

3455

19th May

468

515

2472

 

 

Ökörmezö

17th May

10

3052

19th May

507

558

1987

 

 

Mukačevo

17th May

11

3306

20th May

503

553

2250

 

 

Sighetul Marmatiei

18th May

12

3248

20th May

547

602

2099

Zeev Katz

B 10.7.1928

16th April

D. aft. Pesach

Balazser to

Beregszasz

18th May

13

3569

20th May

992

1091

1486

 

 

Satoruljaujhely

18th May

14

3439

21st May

412

453

2574

 

 

Mukačevo

18th May

15

3025

21st May

127

140

2758

 

 

Viseu de Sus

19th May

16

3032

21st May

556

612

1864

Dvora Fiksler Weingarten

 

Noua Sulita

To Mateszalka

19th May

17

3299

21st May

362

398

2539

 

 

Satu Mare

19th May

18

3000

21st May

395

435

2170

 

 

Mukačevo

19th May

19

3222

22nd May

487

536

2199

 

 

Sighetul Marmatiei

20th May

20

3104

22nd May

368

405

2331

 

 

Vinogradov

20th May

21

3458

22nd May

471

518

2469

 

 

Mukačevo

20th May

22

3028

22nd May

575

633

1820

 

 

Viseu de Sus

21st May

23

3013

23rd May

205

226

2582

 

 

Nyiregyháza

21st May

24

3274

23rd May

196

216

2862

 

 

Satoruljaujhely

21st May

25

3290

23rd May

345

380

2565

 

 

Mukačevo

21st May

26

2861

23rd May

575

633

1653

 

 

Sighetul Marmatiei

22nd May

27

3490

24th May

499

549

2442

 

 

Satu Mare

22nd May

29

3300

24th May

630

693

1977

 

 

Mateszalka

22nd May

30

3299

24th May

494

553

2252

 

 

Viseu de Sus

23rd May

31

3023

24th May

470

517

2036

Chaim Taub

b. 17/10/1929

 

Nyiregyháza

23rd May

32

3272

25th May

224

246

2802

 

 

Mukačevo

23rd May

33

3269

25th May

515

567

2187

 

 

0radea (Nagyvárad)

23rd May

34

3110

25th May

528

581

2001

 

 

Beregovo (Beregszász)

24th May

35

2602

25th May

529

582

1491

Chava Moškovitz née Gubner b. 28.11.1929

15th Apr.

Sat. aft. P

Užhorod

Left 21st May

22nd May

28

3335

26th May

25th May

510

561

2264

Transport was held up in Krakow and arrived first thing in the morning, there were two ghettos, a brick factory an a timber yard

 

 

Košice

24th May

36

3172

26th May

551

606

2015

 

 

Hust

24th May

37

3328

26th May

485

534

2309

 

 

Mukačevo

24th May

38

3080

26th May

674

741

1665

 

 

Possibly Barcs

24th May

a

3160

26th May

509

660

1991

Bela Gruenberger

b.15.3.1925

 

Klodzsano

From Užhorod

25th May

39

3334

26th May

500

550

2284

 

 

0radea (Nagyvárad)

25th May

40

3148

27th May

528

581

2039

 

 

Cluj-Napoca

25th May

41

3130

27th May

606

667

1857

 

 

Akna-Szlatina

25th May

42

3317

27th May

520

572

2225

 

 

Viseu de Sus

25th May

43

3006

27th May

635

699

1672

 

 

Hust

26th May

44

3249

27th May

441

485

2323

 

 

Possibly Baja

Via Gänserndorf, Aust.

26th May

b

3160

28th May

479

527

2154

 

 

Poss. Baja as above

26th May

c

3160

28th May

625

688

1847

 

 

Satu Mare

26th May

45

3336

28th May

455

501

2380

Olga Jitzchaki

b.1920

Shavuot

26th May

Budszeentmihaly to Satoruljaujhely

27th May

46

3325

28th May

477

525

2323                             

 

 

Vinogradov

27th May

47

3415

28th May

499

549

2367

David Leitner

b.28.4.1930

 

Nyiregyháza

27th May

48

2708

28th May

282

310

2416

Sonia Perel

b.5.1.1930

 

Užhorod

27th May

49

2988

28th May

211

232

2545

 

 

Tirgu Mures

27th May

50

3183

28th May

304

334

2545

 

 

Tačev

28th May

51

2208

28th May

155

171

1882

 

 

Dej

28th May

52

3150

28th May

506

557

2087

 

 

0radea

28th May

53

3227

30th May

457

503

2267

Aliza Mor

b.1928

 

Bereggovo

29th May

54

860 Last Train From Beregovo

30th May

170

187

  503

 

 

 

29th May

d

3160

30th May

554

609

1997

Sara  Friedman (Avish) 24.71924

 

Rachovo to Mateszalka

29th May

55

3299

31st May

538

592

2169

 

 

Cluj-Napoca

29th May

56

3417

31st May

592

651

2172

 

 

Satu Mare

29th May

57

3306

31st May

466

513

2327

 

 

0radea

29th May

58

3166

1st June

429

472

2265

 

 

Kisvárda

30th May

59

3476

1st June

519

571

2386

 

 

Tirgu Mures

30th May

60

3203

1st June

426

469

2308

 

 

0radea

30th May

61

3187

1st June

696

776

1715

 

 

Satu Mare

30th May

62

3300

1st June

165

182

2953

Erno Meisels

b.24.9.1911

 

Užhorod

31st May

63

3056

2nd June

620

682

1754

 

 

Cluj-Napoca

31st May

64

3270

2nd June

510

561

2199

 

 

Baia Mare

31st May

65

3073

2nd June

379

417

2277

 

 

Simleu Silvaniei

31st May

66

3106

2nd June

419

461

2419

Tzertl Margalit Troibe (Manheim)

b. 20.3.1928

 

Mateszalka

1st June

67

3299

3rd June

576

634

2089

 

 

Kisvárda

1st June

68

3421

3rd June

543

597

2281

 

 

0radea

1st June

69

3059

3rd June

497

547

2015

 

 

Satu Mare

1st June

70

2615

3rd June

286

315

2014

 

 

Hust

2nd June

71

2396

4th June

443

487

1466

 

 

Bistriţa

2nd June

72

3106

4th June

363

399

2344

 

 

Cluj-Napoca

2nd June

73

3100

4th June

358

394

2248

 

 

Vinogradov

3rd June

74

2937

4th June

496

546

1895

 

 

Košice

3rd June

75

2499

5th June

441

485

1573

 

 

0radea

3rd June

76

2972

5th June

404

444

2124

 

 

Simleu Silvaniei

3rd June

77

3161

5th June

416

458

2287

 

 

Szászrégen

4th June

78

3149

6th June

397

437

2315

 

 

Satoruljaujhely

4th June

79

2567

6th June

441

485

1641

 

 

0radea

5th June

80

2527

6th June

524

576

1427

Josef Landau

b.1929

 

Uhla

To Mateszalka

5th June

81

3100

6th June

401

441

2258

 

 

Nyiregyháza

5th June

82

2253

7th June

376

414

1463

 

 

Baia Mare

5th June

83

2844

7th June

328

361

2155

 

 

Hust

6th June

84

1852

7th June

269

296

1287

 

 

Dej

6th June

85

3160

7th June

444

488

2228

 

 

Bistriţa

6th June

86

2875

8th June

405

446

2024

 

 

Simleu Silvaniei

8th June

87

1584

8th June

138

152

1294

 

 

Dej

8th June

88

1364

9th June

280

308

  776

 

 

Cluj-Napoca

8th June

89

1784

9th June

279

307

1198

 

 

Tirgu Mures

8th June

90

1163

10th June

166

183

  814

 

 

Cluj-Napoca

9th June

91

1447

11th June

329

362

  756

Possibly

 

Székesfehérvár

10th June

e

3160

12th June

3

3

3154

 

 

 

11th June

f

3160

12th June

5

6

3149

 

 

Maklár

11th June

92

2794

12th June

84

92

2618

 

 

Diosgyör

12th June

93

2675

13th June

111

122

2442

 

 

Balassagyarmat

12th June

94

2810

13th June

162

178

2470

 

 

Diosgyör

12th June

95

2941

13th June

59

65

2817

 

 

Nové Zámky

Érsekujvár

12th June

96

2899

14th June

208

229

2462

 

 

Diosgyör

12th June

97

3051

14th June

66

73

2912

 

 

Hatvan

13th June

98

2961

14th June

389

428

2144

 

 

Komárno

13th June

99

2790

15th June

172

189

2429

 

 

Salgotarján

13th June

100

2310

15th June

256

282

1772

 

 

Miskolc- Diosgyör

14th June

101

3965

15th June

62

68

3835

 

 

Balasagyarmat

14th June

102

1867

15th June

620

682

  565

 

 

Levice (Léva)

15th June

103

2678

16th June

53

58

2567

 

 

Miskolc

15th June

104

2829

16th June

355

391

2083

 

 

Nové Zámky

Érsekujvár

15th June

105

1980

17th June

195

215

1570

 

 

Györ

16th June

106

2985

17th June

190

209

2586

 

 

Komárno(Komárom)

16th June

107

2673

17th June

353

388

1932

 

 

Dunajska Streda

Dunaszerdahely

16th June

108

2969

17th June

207

228

2534

 

 

 

17th June

g

3160

18th June

405

446

2309

 

 

Debrecen

25th June

109

3006

26th June

255

281

2470

 

 

Szeged

26th June

110

3199

27th June

215

237

2747

 

 

Debrecen

27th June

111

3842

28th June

2

2

3838

 

 

Kecsemét

27th June

112

2642

29th June

232

255

2155

Gabor Hirsch

b. 9.12.1929

 

Békéscsaba

27th June

114

3118

29th June

236

260

2622

Chedva Katz, née

Stern b. 22.3.1930

25th June

Ester Magda Ungar née Fried b.12.4.1928

16th May

From Serretyudveri to Oradea(Nagyvárad)

Left ghetto 26th June

27th June

113

2819

29th June

206

227

2386

 

 

Bácsalmás

28th June

115

3737

29th June

193

212

3332

 

 

Kecsemét

29th June

116

2790

1st July

203

223

2364

Chava ben David Berkowitz b.1925

25th June

Kunhegyes to Szolnok

29th June

117

2038

1st July

318

350

1370

 

 

Debrecen

29th June

118

3026

1st July

50

55

2921

Rachel Planer

b. Sárvár 1925

 

Left Sárvár 29th June

30th June

5th July

119

3105

7thJuly  Got No. A 10285*

339

373

2393

 

 

Szombathely

5th July

120

3103

7th July

288

317

2498

 

 

Kaposvár

6th July

121

3050

7th July

219

241

2590

Sara Noiman Gross

b. 27.12 1920

End June

Magyaregregy

To Pecs

6th July

122

3100

8th July

300

330

2440

 

 

Kaposvár

6th July

123

2066

8th July

209

230

1627

 

 

Sopron

7th July

124

3077

8th July

356

392

2329

 

 

Pápa

7th July

125

2793

8th July

361

397

2035

 

 

Paks

7th July

126

1072

8th July

335

371

  366

 

 

Monor

7th July

127

3549

9th July

259

285

3005

 

 

Óbuda

7th July

128

3151

9th July

193

212

2746

 

 

Sárvár

7th July

129

2204

9th July

220

242

1742

 

 

Pecs

8th July

130

2523

9th July

85

94

2344

 

 

Óbuda

8th July

131

2997

10th July

248

273

2476

 

 

Monor

9th July

132

3065

10th July

183

201

2681

 

 

Óbuda

9th July

133

3072

10th July Got

No.A-10538*

299

329

2444

*See Auschwitz chronicle 25th July 1944, these women were held as depot prisoners among 2000 women until they were given these numbers, the women were said to have arrived between 15th May and 9th July

 

 

Budakalász

9th July

134

3072

10th July

378

416

2277

 

 

Monor

9th July

135

3079

11th July

426

469

2184

Rachel Miller

b.21.10.1911

July

Duna-Bogdan to Bekésmegyer

9th July

136 trains

1924

11th July

409

450

1065

 

 

 

19th July

h

3160

22nd July

371

408

2381

Gaško List ends

 

Rákoscsaba

20th July

137

1230

22nd July

11

12

1207

Glaser List Ends

 

(for Hung. Jews)

(146 trains)

i

3160

25th July

2

2

3156

This appears to be the end of the Eichmann Action in Hungary.  Transports of Hungarian Jews continued, it appears not possible from this data to sort out transports of prisoners already sent to Auschwitz and sent to other camps then returned again from transports which are again new arrivals

The following are entries from the Glaser List which were now grouped with many transports from the rest of Europe.  The Glaser List  identifies only country of origin of the transports unlike the Gaško List which identifies the many ghettos which the Hungary Gendarmerie established from which to transport Jews to Auschwitz

 

 

 

 

 

 

31st July

2

2

 

 

 

From Hungary (Sárvár)

5th Aug

 

1200

7th Aug.

344

378

 478

 

 

From Slovakia

 

 

1200

2nd Sept.

6

7

1187

 

 

From Slovakia

 

 

1200

20th Sept.

31

34

1135

 

 

From Budapest

 

 

1200

20th Sept.

8

9

1183

                     

 

Michael Honey 27.01.08

 

 

Appendix III

 

The Map of the Hungarian Genocide

 

Drawn by Michal Honey February 2008 and revised September 2008

 

(Click to enlarge)

 

 

Michael Honey:

 

In thinking further about the Hungarian Action in 1944 it occurs to me to summarise the various elements of this history which these regimes brought together for German and Hungarian policies all to the disadvantage of Jews.

 

Both the German and Hungarian regimes had anti-Semitism as major platforms of their policies.  Thus when they forged an alliance they shaped their actions to the advantage of each regime.

 

Germany needed more manpower not only on the eastern front, but also for their war production industries.  And in particular, because of the war, food in Germany was getting scarce.

 

A devils bargain was struck.  The Germans said: “We have given you the territories in Slovakia and in the Ukraine and Romania otherwise also termed Transylvania and you give us your Jews, all 600,000 of them, who live in your lands and territories.  That will release your large food production to send it to us.  What is more we Germany will pay you for the food production which you will be able to ship to us.

 

The map above and the Auschwitz Layout below both demonstrate  two essential ingredients which the Germans and Hungarians needed in order to carry out the genocide of Hungarian Jewry, together with genocide of the Jews of parts of Slovakia, Ukraine and Romania ceded to Hungary during World War II to comprise “Greater Hungary”.

 

It goes without saying that Hitler understood the political stance of the Horty Hungarian regime.  It was agreed by the two fascist powers that Hungarian troops would participate in the fighting on the Eastern Front and it was further agreed to cooperate with Germany for the destruction of Jews for which the Germans had the euphemism that the Jews would be relocated.  This came into effect in May 1944.  The Germans proposed to follow their well tried methods of first removing the men from their families.  Relocation needed trains and a train network.  The network shown on the attached diagram has been made following a study of the departure points and the routes which such trains should take for the relocation site; “Auschwitz”.  It was only then that the meaning of relocation was “Genocide”.

 

The attachment below demonstrates how the relocation also catered for the logistics of disposing of such a large number of corpses.  Pits were shown to be feasible for this and the many bones left after such fires could be ground up with grinding machines used to manufacture gravel.  At this point of such a plan the Germans would advise that Jewish young men should be called up into the Hungarian army to serve as slave labour both at the eastern front and in the hinterland.  The Germans could demonstrate how it was done in the rest of Europe.  Removing the able bodied men rendered their families helpless.  Thus the men were simply recruited into slave labour companies which were regarded as part of the Hungarian army to be used and ground up with hard labour.  Removing the able bodied Jewish men from their families was an essential part of rendering the families defenceless for subsequent relocation.

 

In addition to this the Germans provided the tutelage to the Hungarian Gendarmerie on how to dispossess Jews of all their property both movable and immovable.  An organising team of experts in Genocide were sent by Germany under the command of Adolph Eichmann to Budapest in order to facilitate this gruesome task.  All this is well described in such books as The Politics of Genocide by Prof. Randolph L. Braham and Das letzte Kapitel by Götz Aly and Christian Gerlach.  The latter two writers spent many months in Yad Vashem in Jerusalem examining data in order to write their book.  Both these books made the important point that there was yet another essential benefit to both Germany and Hungary.  And that was looting Jewish property.  The loot was payment on account to the Hungarians for the devil’s bargain. "

 

 

 

Appendix IV

 

Aerial Photograph of Auschwitz Taken by the Royal Air Force during WWII

 

The Birkenau layout is an aerial photograph taken by the RAF at the time of this genocide.  The English and Americans would fly to bomb Dresden for example and they would fly over to Russia where they would refuel and load more bombs.  In this way Germany was bombed from both sides.  They overflew Auschwitz many times but never bombed the crematoria and the railway ramp.

 

 

Michael Honey and his son Daniel, visiting Auschwitz upon Daniel's fiftieth birthday

 

Michael Honey

Michael Honey was born in Czechoslovakia, survived German concentration camps and came to England in 1945. He is an engineer who built chemical and petrochemical plants in localities around the world. He was one of the founding members of the Jewish Genealogical Society of Great Britain. In the society he was responsible for education, culture and recruitment.  He then developed the methodology for recording multi family histories all within the discipline of sorting individuals into their appropriate generations. This system which was started in 1992 is still the only system world wide that does this . He carried out research to list all the victims in the town in the Czech Republic from which he started into his Shoah.

When this list was finished he influenced the town council to erect a memorial to their neighbors who were murdered.   The memorial was built at the expense of this Czech community and it is the only memorial like this in the Czech Republic

 

In 2002 he came on aliya to Israel.

 

He has lectured at several International Jewish Genealogy Conferences:

Toronto (1993), Boston (1996), Los Angeles (1998), London (2001), Washington (2003).and Jerusalem 2004.

 Contact: mhoney@013.net.il
 

 

LINKS

 

Memorial Museum Of Hungarian Speaking Jewry in Safed

 

The Holocaust in Hungary 1 (Hebrew)

 

The Holocaust in Hungary 2 (Hebrew)

 

Rafael Vago: The Unsupportable Easiness of Indifference - Hungary 1944 (Hebrew)

 

Wikipedia: the Jewry of Hungary (Hebrew)

 

Wikipedia: History of the Jews in Hungary

 

USHMM: The Holocaust in Hungary

 

USHMM: Hungary after the  German Occupation

 

Michael Honey: Jewish Nový Jičín & Jewish Valašské Meziříčí ! (Czechoslovakia)

 

Judy (Weiszenberg) Cohen: Women and the Holocaust

 

 

Holocaust | Ghettos | LetterTrains | Map | Photograph | Links

 

Last updated November 19th, 2008

 

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